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study of hydrocarbons (only carbons and hydrogen atoms) and their various derivatives (such as O,N,S,P,F,CL & Br)
a compound that contains carbon & hydrogen and one or more additional elements
a hydrocarbon with one or more carbon-carbon multiple bonds (DB, TB or both)
a saturated hydrocarbon in which the carbon atom arrangement is acyclic
1. only single bonds
2. no carbon atom rings
a two-dimensional structural representation that shows how the various atoms in a molecule are bonded to each other
- makes no attempt to represent the correct bond angles
expanded structural formula
a structural formula that shows all atoms in a molecule and all bonds connecting the atoms
condensed structural formula
a structural formula that uses groupings of atoms, in which the central atoms and the atoms connected to them are written as a group, to convey molecular structure
- bonds between carbon atoms
ex. CH₄ or CH₃-CH₃
skeletal structural formula
a structural formula that shows the arrangement and bonding of carbon atoms present in an organic molecule but does not the hydrogen atoms
ex. C-C-C-C-C means the same as
compounds that have the same molecular formula (# & kinds of atoms) but that differ in the way the atoms are arranged
-to convert with the same molecular formula requires breaking and making of bonds
-different compounds with different properties
isomers that differ in the connectivity of atoms - the order in which atoms are attached to each other within molecules. must have the same molecular formula.
- have to break bonds to convert
the specific three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in an organic at a given instant that results from rotations about carbon-carbon single bonds
-different from structural isomers = they do not require breaking of any bonds
branch chain alkanes: substituent
an atom or group of atoms attached to a chain (or ring) of carbon atoms
branch chain alkanes: Alkyl group
the group of atoms that would be obtained by removing a hydrogen
1. ---CH₃ (methyl group CH₄)
2. ---CH₂-CH₃ (ethyl group CH₃-CH₃)
alkyl group naming
named by taking the stem of the name of the alkane containing the same number of carbon atoms and adding the ending -yl
Rules for naming branch-chain alkanes (6)
1. identify longest continuous chain & name as parent. Ex. pentane
2. number the carbon atoms in the parent chain in such a way so that to give the lowest possible number for a substituent (alkyl group)
3. if only one alkyl group is present, name & locate it (by number), and prefix the number & name to that of the parent carbon chain
4. if 2 or more of the same kind of alkyl group are present, indicate the number with a greek numerical prefix. also, a number specifying the location of each identical group must be included. numbers are separated by commas, and numbers are separated from from words by hyphens
5. when 2 kinds of alkyl groups are present, number each group separately, & list the names of the alkyl groups in alphabetical order.
6. IUPAC punctuation rules
- separate numbers from each other by commas
- separate numbers from letters by hyphens
- no hyphen or space btw last-named substituent and the name of the parent alkane
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