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Nutrition Ch. 3
Energy Systems & Exercise
Terms in this set (40)
Hydrolisis of ATP
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is split chemically, leaving adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) and releasing
energy in an exergonic reaction.
The production of force by a muscle fiber requires ___________.
The direct source of energy for muscle force production comes from __________, which is stored in the muscle cell.
List the 3 energy systems that replenish ATP:
- creatine phosphate
- anaerobic glycolysis
- oxidative phosphorylation
Creatine phosphate replenishes a __________ amount of ATP, at a ___________ pace, for a __________ amount of time
very small; very fast; very short
Anaerobic glycolysis replenishes a ___________ amount of ATP, at a ___________ pace, for a ___________ amount of time.
small; fast; short
Oxidative phosphorylation replenishes a ___________ amount of ATP, at a ___________ pace, for a ___________ amount of time.
large; very slow; very long
The creatine phosphate energy system:
a) Powers muscle contractions in the same way ATP does.
b) Is an example of a reservoir of energy to re-form ADP.
c) Phosphorylates ADP into ATP.
d) Is another term for anaerobic glycolysis.
c) phosphorylates ADP into ATP.
This energy system breaks the phosphate bond of CrP to release energy. This energy phosphorylates ADP back into ATP.
Creatine phosphate is catalyzed by what enzyme?
creatine kinase (CK)
The creatine phosphate energy system is/is not completely anaerobic.
- is not
The recovery of CrP requires aerobic metabolism in the cell. The creatine shuttle takes place in the mitochondria where rxn's require oxygen to produce ATP.
Carbohydrates in the form of _________ are broken down through a series of chemical rxn's that result in a net formation of ________.
What is the final product of anaerobic glycolysis?
Lactate is an important metabolic compound.
When anaerobic glycolysis is used at high rate (moderate-high intensity exercises), the high rate of metabolism creates acidity, and this is called ___________.
If glycolysis begins with glucose/glycogen, 2 ATP are required for the reaction to proceed. ___ total ATP are produced from glycolysis. This makes the final "net" production of ATP ___.
glucose; 4; 2
If starting with glucose/glycogen, 1 ATP is required for the reaction to proceed. This makes the final "net" production of ATP ___.
Thus, glucose/glycogen is more energy efficient.
What is the rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis?
Of the three energy-yielding macronutrients, which one(s) does anaerobic glycolysis utilize?
Glucose proceeds through a series of ____ chemical steps, ____ of which are repeated, ending as lactic acid or __________.
18; 6; lactate
The reaction between pyruvate and lactate is a:
a) one-way reaction.
b) two-way reaction.
b) two-way reaction
If lactate concentrations get too high, lactate is converted to __________ and taken into the mitochondria of highly aerobic cells. Once inside the mitochondria, this compound is metabolized aerobically/anaerobically.
Lactate is a waste product.
Lactate may also be converted to glucose via the ________ cycle. This occurs in the _________.
Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are broken down through a series of chemical rxns that result in a net formation of ATP.
1. Following glycolysis, pyruvate molecules are shuttled into the ________.
2. The major function of the Krebs cycle is:
- to oxidize, or remove, electrons from the compounds going through the cycle for later use in the electron transport chain
3. Pyruvate is converted to an intermediate compound called ______.
4. The electron transport chain takes place specifically within the inner ______________ membrane.
5. ______ is the final electron acceptor and forms water.
The complete oxidation of glucose in skeletal muscle yields ____ ATP.
In the first step of the ____________, electrons are transferred from pyruvate to ________ so that pyruvate can be converted to _______________.
Krebs Cycle; NAD; acetyl CoA
In this oxidation-reduction reaction, pyruvate has lost electrons, so it has been ____________, and NAD has gained electrons, so it has been ____________.
Fatty Acid chains are stored as ____________ in fat cells and other tissues, like muscle.
- A triglyceride is composed of a Glycerol molecule attached to 3 fatty acid chains.
Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER)
- the ratio of carbon dioxide expired to oxygen consumed.
RER = VCO2/VO2
- carbon dioxide production
- oxygen consumption
When fat is needed for energy, ______ are broken down. Fatty acids are transported to the _______ and metabolized aerobically.
_______ is the term used for the breakdown of triglycerides.
The removal of 2-carbon segments from the fatty acid chain and conversion to acetyl CoA is called _______.
Proteins are metabolized aerobically/anaerobically, after the amino (nitrogen) group is ______.
The Respiratory Exchange Ratio indicates utilization of ________ and _______ as fuels.
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