41 terms

BIO TEST CH 12

STUDY
PLAY
The type of recombinant bacteria most often used to mass-produce genes is
Escherichia coli
When DNA from two sources is combined into one single piece of DNA, it is known as
recombinant DNA
Approximately what percentage of the human genome is identical to that of a chimpanzee?
98.8%
The feature of "sticky ends" that makes them especially useful in DNA recombination is their ability to
form hydrogen-bonded base pairs with complementary single-stranded stretches of DNA
What is the preferred name of the technique used to determine if DNA comes from a particular individual?
DNA profiling
Approximately what percentage of human DNA is noncoding?
98.5%
Biotechnology
has been around since the dawn of civilization
In the process of human gene cloning using recombinant plasmids, the bacterial plasmid
functions as a vector
During the process of electrophoresis, the _______ functions like a thick filter, separating the samples according to their size.
gel
Restriction enzymes
cut DNA at specific sites
When DNA fingerprinting was first used,
the two semen samples did not match the person who initially confessed
Restriction enzymes specifically recognize and cut short sequences of DNA called
restriction sites
The production of multiple identical copies of gene-sized pieces of DNA defines
gene cloning
Which of the following statements regarding DNA is false?
Scientists think that the typical human gene probably specifies just one polypeptide.
A collection of DNA fragments obtained from the genome of one organism, inserted by recombinant DNA techniques into the genome of a host organism (one fragment per host genome), and maintained there is called a
genomic library
Which step in this process requires use of restriction enzymes?
step B
In order to match the pilot's remains to the correct family using DNA profiling,
each of the 13 STR bands must match
Based on analysis of the STR sites shown, does the missing pilot belong to any of these three families?
Yes, family 3 matches.
DNA ligase binds
nucleotides together
Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules on the basis of their
size
In order for gene therapy to be permanent,
the normal gene must be transferred to somatic cells that can continuously multiply
If you commit a crime, you need to make sure that you do not leave even the smallest speck of blood, hair or other organic matter from your body. If you do, the DNA in this material can be amplified by ______, subjected to genetic analysis, and used to identify you as the perpetrator of the crime.
PCR
A nucleic acid probe is
a piece of radioactively labeled DNA that is used to locate a specific gene.
_________ are a major source of restriction enzymes.
Bacteria
DNA fragments that have matching sticky ends are joined by covalent bonds formed by the action of
DNA ligase
When plasmids are used to produce a desired protein,
the desired gene is inserted into the plasmid and the plasmid is returned to the bacterium by transformation.
The advantage of being able to clone the gene for human insulin is that
human insulin is less likely to provoke an allergic reaction than cow, pig or horse insulin.
A vaccine works by
stimulating the immune system.
Which of the following pieces of evidence would be considered the best for establishing biological relatedness?
a very close match in the DNA profile
The number of proteins in humans
is much greater than the number of genes
Decisions regarding the human genome are the responsibility of
society as a whole (individuals, doctors, scientists, government)
The electrical current in the electrophoresis chamber always runs
negative to positive
Remove the bacterial plasmid/cut using a restriction enzyme
1st- a
Harvest/purify the insulin protein to be injected into patients
5th- e
Put the bacterial plasmid back into the bacterial cell where it can reproduce and synthesize the insulin protein
4th- d
Isolate in insulin gene in human DNA using the same restriction enzyme
2nd- b
Insert the insulin gene into the bacterial plasmid/Seal with ligase
3rd- c
Separate the fragments using electrophoresis
2nd- b
Compare the bands of DNA
3rd- c
Cut the DNA using a restriction enzyme
1st- a
Analyze/Interpret the results
4th- d