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________ use light as their source of energy to drive the process of photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is a process of _____ in which light energy>electrical energy>chemical energy
3 main stages of photosynthesis
-capturing light energy
The leaf is the ____ ______ ______ of the plant
Main photosynthetic structure
Larry Thinks That Names Mean Nothing
Adaptations of the leaf for photosynthesis:
-Large surface area
-Thin Lamina (leaf blade)
-Many Air Spaces
-Network of Vascular Tissue
Connor Thompson Always Packs Large Lunches
Adaptations of palisade mesophyll cells:
-packed with numerous chloroplasts
-large surface area
Photosynthesis takes place within cell organelles called ____
Chloroplasts are surrounded by a double membrane called the ______
_________ is a fluid-filled matric where the light-independent stage of photosynthesis takes place
_______ are stacks of up to 100 disc-like structures called _____
Some thylakoids have tubular extensions that join up with thylakoids in adjacent grana called _______
The granal membranes provide a _______ for the attachment of the photosynthetic pigments, electron carriers and enzymes
Large surface area
A network of ______ aim the grana hold the photosynthetic pigments in a very precise manner to form special units called photosystems allowing maximum absorption of light.
Granal membranes have many _______ enzymes attached to them, which help manufacture ATP by chemiosmosis.
The _____ of the stroma houses all the enzymes needed to carry out the Calvin Cycle
Chloroplasts contain both _____ and _____ enabling them to quickly manufacture some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis.
The two most important pigments found in chloroplasts that act together are _____ and _____
Chlorophyll is a group of similar green pigments of which _____ and _____ are the most common.
chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b
Chlorophylls are made up of a complex ring called a ______ ring attached to a _______
porphyrin, hydrocarbon tail
The chain is ________ and embeds itself in the lipid rich thylakoid membrane. The ring is _________ and therefore remains on the watery surface of the thylakoid membrane.
There are two main types of carotenoids, _______ and _______
Carotenoids are known as ________ because they are not directly involved in the light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis.
What is the purpose of carotenoids?
They absorb light wavelengths not efficiently absorbed by chlorophyll a and pass the energy they capture to chlorophyll a for use in the LDR
A single quantum of light is called a ______
If the amount of light pigments absorb at each wavelength is plotted on a graph, an ________ ________ is obtained.
An _________ ________ is a graph of the effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in bringing about photosynthesis.
Light for photosynthesis is captured by groups of chlorophyll molecules along with their accessory pigments called ______
Each photosystem is a collection of chlorophyll a molecules, accessory pigments and associated proteins all fixed within a __________ on the surface of the photosynthetic membrane
One particular chlorophyll molecule, known as a ________, acts as a ________ for each photosystem
primary pigment, reaction centre
The accessory pigments absorb photons. These molecules are called the _____________
The photon absorbed by an accessory pigment creates an _______ _______ that is passed along a chain of pigment molecules to the reaction centre.
What are the names of the two types of photosystems?
Photosystem I (PS1) and Photosystem II (PSII)
______ has a chlorophyll molecule that has a light absorption peak of 700 nm as its reaction centre (known as P700)
______ has a chlorophyll molecule that has a light absorption peak of 680 nm as its reaction centre (know as P680)
Light-->Reaction Centre, A pair of electrons ^^^ a higher energy level. They are said to be in an _________ sate and are taken up by an _______ _____
excited, electron carrier
During photophosphorylation the chlorophyll molecule is _____ while the electron carrier is _______
The electrons are passed along a number of electron carriers in a series of redox reaction. This is referred to as the _____ _____ _____
electron transport chain
This energy is used to combine an inorganic phosphate molecule to an ADP molecule in order to make ATP- the process being called _______
The precise mechanism is the chemiosmotic process, whereby protons (H+) from the ________ of water flow through channels in the stalked particles of the thylakoid membrane, thereby providing the energy to make ATP (using ATP synthase)
What are the two processes which electrons can enter after moving through the chain?
-Uses only _____
-Electrons are _______
-Product is ______
-Electrons are ______
-Products are ________
-Electrons in oxidised photosystems are replenished by ______ that are photolyzed.
-Photolysis also yields ______ _____ which ender the LIDPR
-PSI and PSII
-taken up by NADP
-Reduced NADP+ (NAHP + H+) and oxygen
-hydrogen ions (protons)
______ is the splitting of water as a direct consequence of light causing chlorophyll molecules to lose electrons.
Photolysis only occurs in _____
Formula for Photolysis
2H2O -> 4H+ + 4e- + O2`
The Z Scheme
The independent stage takes place in the _____-
The process of the LIDR is known as the __________
CO2 diffuses into the leaf through the _____ and dissolves in water around the walls of the _________ cells. It then diffuses-->cell surface membrane-->cytoplasm-->chloroplast envelope-->stroma
In the stroma, CO2 combines with the 5C compound __________ using the enzyme ____ to form an unstable 6C compound.
Ribulose Bisphosphate (RuBP), Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase (Rubisco)
The unstable 6C compound immediately breaks down into 2 molecules of the 3C acid ______ containing the (-COOH) group
The reducing power of reduced NADP and energy of ATP are used to remove _______ from GP (reduction).
The overall effect of ATP and reduced NADP is to reduce a carboxylic group (-COOH) to an _________
aldehyde group (-CHO)
The product of the reduction of GP is a 3C sugar called __________ or _______
triose phosphate or glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate
Triose phosphate molecules combine in pairs to form 6C hexose sugars which can then be ________ into starch
______ out of every six TP molecules produced are used to regenerate _______ using the remainder of the ATP from the LDR as the source of energy
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