Advanced Biology Final
Terms in this set (79)
What part of the seed provides nourishment for the embryo?
Endosperm-the tissue that nourishes the embryo and the seedling as they develop.
Name the endocrine glands.
Hypothalamus, Pituitary gland(anterior & posterior), Thyroids, Paranthyroids, Adrenal Glands( adrenal medulla and cortex), pancreas, gonads(testes & ovaries), thymus, pineal gland.
List the functions of the urinary system
a.Excretion of metabolic wastes
b.Maintenance of water-salt balance
c.Maintenance of acid-base balance
d.Sexretion of hormones
The greatest surface area for gas exchange occurs within the ______
What is the advantage for having a variety of genotypes and phenotypes in a population?
Disease won't wipe out the whole population.
The breathing rate is controlled by chemoreceptors that detect _______
Decrease in oxygen levels.
Describe the structure and function of the myelin sheath.
a. Formed by a type of neuroglia called Schwann cells in the PNS and formed by obligodendrgolial cells in the CNS
b. Cover the axons of the neurons and give them protection
c. Serve as a passageway for new fiber growth when an axon is severed
Viruses that infect bacteria are called_______
Which type of natural selection increases the frequency of an extreme phenotype?
List organisms that exhibit radial symmetry.
b. Cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones & corals)
List the three steps involved in urine formation.
a. Glomerular filtration
b. Tubular reabsorption
c. Tubular secretion
The cycle of viral infection of a becterial cell that will cause its death most rapidly is called the ______ cycle.
How is the fern better adapted to life on land than moss?
A fern is better adapted to life on land than a moss is because ferns have true roots, stems, and leaves (contain vascular tissue). Their well-developed leaves fan out, capture solar energy and photosynthesize. The sporophyte producws wind-blown spores.
List the lines of evidence considered by Darwin in his development of the theory of natural selection.
b. Overproduction and struggle for existence
c. Survival of the fittest
A correct description of the movement of actin-myosin fibers is________
If the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is met, what is the net effect?
The allele frequencies in the population have remained constant (Evolution has not occured)
The pacemaker of the heart is termed the ______
The SA (sinoatrial) node
Name the neuromuscular transmitter that is released at the axon bulb.
Food is prevented from entering the trachea by the ______
Epiglottis: it covers the glottis, which leads to the trachea.
A "Pap Test" is used to detect _____
What structures attach muscle to bone?
What is the function of a vector in genetic engineering?
A vector is a piece of DNA that can be manipulated in order to add a foreign DNA to it. A common vector is a plasmid, which is a small accessory ring of DNA from bacteria.
Which is the process by which a protein is constructed in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells?
There is a certain amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs. This is called ______
Accumulation of the cholesterol beneath the inner linings of arteries is called _____
Calcium ions bind to ______ during the initiation of muscle contraction.
Earthworms belong to which phylum?
Tapeworms are specialized for parasitism by an excessive development of which system?
Where do the nitrogenous wastes produced in the body come from?
Aged red blood cells are destroyed in the _____
liver and spleen
Trace the path of an inhaled air molecule to the lungs.
Nasal cavities - Pharynx - Glottis - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchi - Bronchioles - Lungs - Alveoli
The heart rate speeds up or slows down because the ______
SA node and the AV node (pacemaker)
Describe the nervous control of respiration.
a. The respiratory center automatically stimulates the rib muscles and diaphragm to contract through the phrenic nerve.
b. After forced inhalation, stretch receptors send inhibitory nerve impulses to the respiratory center through the vagus nerve
c. usually, expiration automatically occurs due to lack of stimulation from the respiratory enter to the diaphragm and rib muscles.
List the functions of the digestive system.
Break down food for nourishment and nutrients.
The stinging cells or nematocysts are characteristic of what phylum?
List example of bivalve mollusks.
Clams, oysters, scallops.
It is impossible to save a premature baby at 4 to 5 months of pregnancy because physicians say there is a "wall" that prevents survival much earlier than six months. What causes this "wall" past which they cannot push infant survival?
Which hormones require iodine?
T3 and T4
Most of Darwin's observations about changes in species over time and in different environments took place in and near ___________
The Galapagos Islands
The various forms of algae are NOT considered plants because ________
they are considered protist and don't rely on CO2 or sugar.
Excretion is a process in which ____ is (are) removed from the body.
Muscles that encircle tubes and act as valves are called _______
The water vascular system of the echinoderm is used for ______
Fertilization in humans normally occurs in the ______
Coelomates that develop with the blastopore becoming the mouth are ______
DNA serves as a template for the synthesis of ______
What is the function of a dendrite?
Receives signals from other neurons and then sends signals toward the cell body.
Prokaryotic cells are represented by fossils that are dated back as far as ____ billion years ago.
"Artery and "vein" are defined by whether they leave or enter the heart. If they were defined by whether they carried oxygenated or deoxygenated blood, we would have to change the names of which vessels?
Pulmonary veins and arteries
The term "reducinv atmosphere" for the early earth means that the atmosphere is _____
Which blood vessels will have walls only one cell thick?
What does the term 'essential mean with respect to amino acids and faty acids in the diet?
They are essential because the body cannot make or manufacture them.
What is the correct sequence a drop of blood returning from the body encounters the heart chambers?
a. The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava enter the right atrium
b. The right atrium sends blood through an antrioventricular valve (the tricuspid valve) to the right ventricle
c. The right ventricle swnds the blood through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk and through the two pulmonary arteries to the lungs
d. Four pulmonary veins enter the left atrium
e. The left atrium sends blood through an atrioventricular valve to the left ventricle.
f. The left ventricle sends blood through the aortic semilunar vein into the aorta to the rest of the body
Generally, nerve impulses do nog move "backward" along a seeies of neurons. Why not?
After the nerve impulse passes a neuron it undergoes a refractory period in whicb all the sodium gates are unable to open
Describe the life cycle of a plant
a. A microsporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce 4 microspores and a megasporocyte undergoes meiosis to produce 4 megaspores
b. Microspores develop into pollen grains (male gametophytes) and a megaspore becomes the embryo sac (female gametophyte)
c. Pollination occurs
d. The ovule develops into a seed containing the embryonic sporophyte and endosperm
Glucose is found in the glomerular filtrate but not in the urine because ______
it is reabsorbed
the energy source for sperm to swim comes from __________
The tube that transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the _______
In dissection, most nerve fibers appear gray to white because _____
-Gray matter is made up short, nonmyelinated fibers
-White matter is made up long, myelinated axons
-The short, nonmyelinated fibers lie near the edge of the axon, while the long, myelinated fibers are deep inside the axons
What are the two ways that the effects of hormones are controlled?
a.Negative Feedback - Mechanism of homeostasis response by which the output of a system suppresses or inhibits the activity of the system
b.The action of other hormones
Name the structure and organ that has microvilli, maltase and absorbs nutrients.
Which type of nutrition is believed to have come first in the evolution of life on earth?
Which vascular plants have seeds?
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Why is it advantageous to have blood move slowly in the capillaries?
It is advantageous because a slower blood flow allows more time for substances to be exchanged across the thin walls.
In the moss life cycle, the _____ generation is dominant.
Which mechanism used to form urine requires a high blood pressure?
What structures are shared by angiosperms and gymnosperms?
Vascular tissue, seeds, roots.
List examples of active transport discussed this semester.
Which body system coordinates activities of body parts by releasing hormones into the blood?
The structure that forms most of the flesh of an apple is the _____
The source of energy for bonding between myosin and actin is _____
ATP from muscle contraction
Bone - forming cells are termed ________
Because of its widespread use in all living organisms, ______ is thought to have been one of the earliest metabolic pathways developed in life, although the process may have taken millions of years to evolve completely.
The function of transfer RNA is to ___________
take amino acids to ribosomes
What is the function of a restriction enzyme in genetic engineering?
To stop virus production by cleaving viral DNA
Three defining characteristics of chordates are_________
-A dorsal supporting rod called a notochord
-A dorsal tubular nerve cord
-A postanal tail
Oxygen is transported in the blood most efficiently by _______.
the hemoglobin in red blood cells.
the microscopic anatomical unit of excretion found in the kidney is the ________
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy(BSE) or "mad cow disease" is caused by a ____