shared powers between the national and state governments
voting for representatives
no one is above the law. Everyone must obey the law
Separation of Powers
division of the government into 3 separate branches, thus preventing an all powerful monarch
a fair treatment under the law
period of economic decline
the right to vote
Checks & Balances
system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
to formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
document setting out the structure and main principles of a government
government in which the people rule by their own consent
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
a form of government in which the people and their elected representatives are limited by a constitution
1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and a plan for admitting new states to the Union
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
to change; to alter
branch of government that enforces the laws; President
branch of government that makes the laws; Congress (House & Senate)
branch that interprets the laws and constitution; Supreme Court
known as the "big-state plan"; the proposal at the Constitutional Convention to create a two-chamber legislature, with representation in both houses based on each state's population
New Jersey Plan
known as the "small-state plan"; plan for equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, as under the existing Articles of Confederation.
compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention stating that only three-fifths of the slaves in a state would count when determining its population for representation
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments written to satisfy Anti-Federalists; defines basic liberties and rights.
supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government.
group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Baron de Montesquieu
enlightenment writer who argued in favor of separation of power and checks and balances in government
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution; the authority to print money.
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states; public education
powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments; levying of taxes
power of courts to declare laws unconstitutional; Marbury v. Madison
justify; authorize; an order from a judge that authorizes police or other officials to take a certain action, such as searching someone's property
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
to set free
trade between two or more states
Articles of Confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.