40 terms

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Federalism
shared powers between the national and state governments
Republicanism
voting for representatives
Ratification
formal approval
Limited Government
no one is above the law. Everyone must obey the law
Separation of Powers
division of the government into 3 separate branches, thus preventing an all powerful monarch
Due Process
a fair treatment under the law
Depression
period of economic decline
Suffrage
the right to vote
Checks & Balances
system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Impeach
to formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
Constitution
document setting out the structure and main principles of a government
Popular Sovereignty
government in which the people rule by their own consent
bicameral
A legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
constitutional republic
a form of government in which the people and their elected representatives are limited by a constitution
Northwest Ordinance
1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory and a plan for admitting new states to the Union
Shay's Rebellion
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes
amend
to change; to alter
Executive Branch
branch of government that enforces the laws; President
Legislative Branch
branch of government that makes the laws; Congress (House & Senate)
Judicial Branch
branch that interprets the laws and constitution; Supreme Court
Virginia Plan
known as the "big-state plan"; the proposal at the Constitutional Convention to create a two-chamber legislature, with representation in both houses based on each state's population
New Jersey Plan
known as the "small-state plan"; plan for equal representation in a unicameral Congress by states, regardless of size and population, as under the existing Articles of Confederation.
Great Compromise
compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
Three-Fifths Compromise
an agreement worked out at the Constitutional Convention stating that only three-fifths of the slaves in a state would count when determining its population for representation
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments written to satisfy Anti-Federalists; defines basic liberties and rights.
Federalists
supporters of ratification of the Constitution and of a strong central government.
Anti-Federalists
group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Baron de Montesquieu
enlightenment writer who argued in favor of separation of power and checks and balances in government
Electoral College
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
Individual Rights
basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
Delegated Powers
powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution; the authority to print money.
Reserved Powers
powers that the Constitution does not give to the national government that are kept by the states; public education
Concurrent Powers
powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments; levying of taxes
Judicial Review
power of courts to declare laws unconstitutional; Marbury v. Madison
warrant
justify; authorize; an order from a judge that authorizes police or other officials to take a certain action, such as searching someone's property
probable cause
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
emancipate
to set free
interstate commerce
trade between two or more states
Articles of Confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.

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