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31 terms

Ch 13 bio test

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The core theme of biology is
evolution
Aristotle believed that
pieces are fixed (permanent) and perfect.
Darwin found that some of the species on the Galapagos islands resembled species of the South American mainland
more than they resembled animals on ecologically similar but distant islands.
Which of the following statements would Darwin have disagreed with?
Descent with modification occurs through inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Lyell's book Prillciples of Geology, which Darwin read on board the H.IvLS. Beagle, argued in
favor of which of the following concepts?
Earth's surface is shaped by natural forces that act gradually and are still acting.
A dog breeder wishes to develop a breed that does not bark. She starts with a diverse mixture
of dogs. Generation after generation, she allows only the quietest dogs to breed . After 30 years
of work she has a new breed of dog "with interesting traits, but on average, the dogs still bark at
about the same rate as other dog breeds. Which of the following "would be a logical explanation
for her failure?
The tendency to bark is not a heritable trait.
Which of the following assumptions or observations contradicts Darwin's ideal of natural
selection?
Whether an organism survives and reproduces is almost entirely a matter of random
chance.
Which of the following best expresses the concept of natured selection?
Differential reproductive success based on inherited characteristics
Who developed a theory of evolution almost identical to Darwin's?
Wallace
Which of the following statements regarding natural selection is false?
Natural selection starts with the creation of new alleles that are directed toward
improving an organism's fitness.
Which of the following would prevent an organism from becoming part of the fossil record
When it dies?
is fully decomposed by bacteria and fungi .
Which of the following statements regarding the currently available fossil record false?
the currently available fossil record shows that the first life forms were eukaryotes.
. Which of the following disciplines has found evidence for evolution based on the native
distributions (locations) of living species?
biogeography
Humans share several features with salamanders. Certain genes and proteins are nearly 14
identical between the two species; both species have four limbs with a similar skeletal structure;
the species' early embryos are very similar; and where the salamander has a functional tail,
humans have a vestigial tailbone. In evolutionary terms, these are examples of
homology.
Deep branch points near the base, or trunk, of an evolutionary tree represent _____ while
Branch points near the tips of the branches represent ___ _
relatively ancient common ancestors ... relatively recent common ancestors
Which of the following would a biologist describe as microevolution?
a change in allele frequencies within the gene pool of a population
A biological species is defined as a group of organisms that
have the potential to interbreed in nature. and produce fertile offspring
Organisms that possess more than two complete sets of chromosomes are said to be
polyploid.
The "big bang" that produced the universe is thought to have occurred
10 to 20 billion years ago.
The earliest discovered fossils are of dating back to ______ years ago.
A. prokaryotes ... 3.5 billion
When the Earth first solidified, what were conditions like?
The atmosphere ,vas rich in gases released in volcanic eruptions; volcanic activity,
lightning, and ultraviolet radiation were all much more intense than on today's Earth
. population is
group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time.
Microevolution, or evolution at its smallest scale, occurs when
population's allele frequencies change over a span of generations.
The ultimate source of all new alleles is
mutation in parent cells (asexual organisms) or in cells that produce gametes (sexual
organisms).
Which sentence best describes the true nature of natural selection?
Heritable traits that promote reproduction become more frequent in A population from
one generation to the next.
A woman struggling With a bacterial illness is prescribed a month's supply of a potent
antibiotic. She takes the antibiotic for about two weeks and feels much better. Should she save
the remaining two-week supply, or should she continue taking the drug?
She should continue taking the drug until her immune system can completely eliminate
the infection . Otherwise the remaining bacteria in her system may recover and they will
probably be resistant
Which of the following would be most quickly be eliminated by natural selection?
. harmful allele in an asexual, haploid population
When the continent of Pangaea first split apart, it formed
northern landmass called Laurasia and a southern landmass called Gondwana.
Ever since Darwin, systematics has tried to
classify species in groups that reflect evolutionary relationships.
In the three-domain system, the eukaryotes are represented
only within the domain Eukarya.
The three-domain system
subdivides the prokaryotes into two different domains.