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Terms in this set (36)
Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers information
First stage of the memory process; in it information is transformed or coded (a transduction process) into a form that can be processed further and stored
A newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
Maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
Process of finding information previously stored in memory.
A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
The processing of several aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information such as word meanings.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
a form of practice
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice
serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
The encoding of picture images
Description that appeals to the senses
(sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
chunking iconic memory
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
loss of memory
(LTP) An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
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