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Study Ch. 21
LearnSmart Ch. 21
Terms in this set (113)
Which body system maintains fluid balance, absorbs lipids, and protects the body against pathogens?
Where is lymph found?
In lymphatic vessels
Lymphatic vessels are absent from ______.
cartilage and bone
T/F: Lymphatic capillaries are open-ended vessels consisting of loosely overlapping endothelial cells.
Which tissues lack lymphatic vessels?
What are the lymphatic system's main functions?
Immunity, absorption of lipids, fluid recovery
How many lymphatic trunks are normally found in the body?
Lymph leaving the lymph nodes contains a large number of ______.
The largest type of lymphatic vessel, which deposits lymph into the subclavian veins, is called a collecting ____
Lymphatic vessels are anatomically very similar to which of the following?
Which describes lymphatic capillaries?
Closed-ended vessels consisting of loosely overlapping endothelial cells
Which collecting duct drains lymph from the head, the right arm, and the right side of the thorax?
Right lymphatic duct
Where are lymphatic vessels found?
In most body tissues, except the CNS, cartilage, cornea, bone, and bone marrow
The duct that drains lymph from the body below the diaphragm, the left upper limb and the left side of the head neck and thorax is the ______.
What do lymphatic collecting vessels converge to form?
Natural killer cells belong to which group of cells?
The two collecting ducts are the ______ ducts.
right and thoracic
Which are features of lymphatic vessels?
-Smooth muscle is present in the vessel wall
-Valves are present
-A tunica interna is present
Which collecting duct receives the least amount of lymph?
Right lymphatic duct
The organ where T-cells mature is the ______.
A ____ cell produces antibodies.
Natural killer cells attack ______.
-virus infected host cells
What are monocytes that migrate to the tissue and function as phagocytes called?
What do lymphatic trunks converge to form?
A cell that phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface for recognition by other cells of the immune system is a(n) ______ cell.
The cell that is found in the epidermis, mucous membranes, and lymphoid tissues that initiates immune responses by activating lymphocytes and secreting cytokines is the ____ .
Which class of lymphocyte matures in the thymus?
What are mucosal associated lymphatic tissues?
Aggregates of lymphatic tissue scattered throughout the lamina propria of mucous membranes
Which cell produces antibodies?
Macrophages are ______ cells.
T/F: Both lymphatic tissues and lymphatic organs have distinct connective tissue capsules surrounding them.
Which cells function as antigen presenting cells?
Which primary lymphoid organ is the site of B cell maturation?
Red bone marrow
Dendritic cells engulf foreign matter by ______.
Which bone marrow is mainly adipose tissue?
What does MALT stand for?
Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue
The organ that is the site of T-cell maturation is the ______.
Distinct connective tissue capsules surround which of the following?
A typical adult has about how many lymph nodes?
Which are primary lymphatic organs?
Red bone marrow
Hemopoiesis occurs in the ____ bone marrow.
A ____ center is an area within the lymph node and spleen where B cell proliferation, differentiation, and activation occurs.
The bilobed lymphatic organ that is located in the mediastinum is the ____.
Lymphatic vessels that carry lymph away from a lymph node are called ____ lymphatic vessels.
The ______ are patches of lymphatic tissue located at the entrance to the pharynx, where they guard against ingested and inhaled pathogens.
What are functions of lymph nodes?
Filtration of lymph
Site of B and T cell activation
The large lymphatic organ located near the diaphragm, stomach, and left kidney is the ____
T/F: Bacteria and viruses are examples of pathogens.
What does the first line of defense against pathogens consist of?
A lymph node has ______ afferent vessels associated with it than efferent vessels.
What is the tough protein of skin that few pathogens can penetrate?
Which leukocyte destroys bacteria by means of phagocytosis, intracellular digestion, and the secretion of bactericidal chemicals?
Which area of the spleen is penetrated by the splenic artery and vein?
What is the exocytosis of lysosomal contents by neutrophils called?
Organisms that cause disease, such as bacteria or fungi, are considered ____
Which leukocytes are responsible for adaptive immunity?
Skin belongs to the body's ______ line of defense.
Which leukocyte transforms into a macrophage when it moves from the blood into the tissues?
The external barrier that is coated with antimicrobial chemicals such as lactic acid, dermicidin, and defensins is ______.
Interferons, complement, defensins and granzymes are examples of which of the following?
Where are complement proteins synthesized?
The respiratory burst by neutrophils leads to the production of which of the following?
Which cells induce cytolysis by secreting perforin?
Cytotoxic T cells
Most lymphocytes circulating in blood are ______.
A fever reducing agent is called a(n) ______.
A ____ migrates into the tissues where it transforms into a macrophage.
What are the cardinal signs of inflammation? Select all that apply.
Which globulins make powerful contributions to both nonspecific resistance and specific immunity?
What class of chemical agents do interleukins and interferons belong to?
NK cells induce apoptosis in virally infected cells by secreting which protein-degrading enzymes?
During the inflammatory response, leukocytes traveling through the blood adhere to the blood vessel walls by which process?
Aspirin, acetaminophen, and ibuprofen reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins and are generally called what?
The accumulation of dead cells, fluid, and tissue debris is called ____.
When pus accumulates in a tissue cavity that may sometimes form a blister between the dermis and epidermis, it is called a(n) ____.
What are the immunological benefits of inflammation?
To remove the debris of damaged tissue
To limit the spread of pathogens
To initiate tissue repair
What are two cell types that secrete histamine, heparin, leukotrienes and kinins, thus inducing the inflammatory response?
Which characteristic describes how immunity is directed against a particular pathogen, and that immunity to one pathogen usually does not confer immunity to others?
Leukocytes crawl through gaps between endothelial cells into the tissue fluid by means of a process called ____
diapedesis OR emigration
Which of the following forms pus?
Dead neutrophils and macrophages
B cells are the primary cell of ______ immunity and T cells are the primary cell of ______ immunity.
Any large molecule capable of triggering an immune response is called a(n) ____.
Which area of an antibody determines its class?
The constant region determines the class of antibody.
The characteristic of immunity describing how it is directed against a particular pathogen is ______.
______ lymphocytes originate in the red bone marrow, then finish maturation in the thymus.
Which cell phagocytizes an antigen and displays fragments of it on its surface?
Cellular immunity is mediated mainly by ______ cells, while humoral immunity is mediated mainly by ______ cells.
____ T cells attack foreign cells.
What is any large molecule capable of triggering an immune response called?
Where are type I MHC proteins found?
On all nucleated body cells
Class ______ MHC proteins occur only on APCs.
Where do T cells mature?
Cytotoxic T cells attack and destroy target cells by secreting which of the following?
Tumor necrosis factor
Why do memory T cells allow for a faster immune response when the body is exposed to the same antigen again?
-There are more of them.
-There are fewer steps to activation.
MHC class ______ proteins occur on all nucleated somatic cells and may trigger a cytotoxic T cell response if displaying a viral protein.
What is required for activation of a B cell?
-Usually, it must bind a helper T cell.
-It must bind an antigen on several surface receptors.
Which cells carry MHC class II proteins?
Molecules that function to render antigens harmless by neutralization, complement fixation, agglutination and precipitation are called ______.
Which T cells attack and destroy target cells by secreting perforins and granzymes?
Which are characteristics of a secondary immune response?
-It occurs after the second and subsequent exposures to an antigen.
-Antibodies first appear within hours, peaking at day 3.
-IgG antibodies are formed first.
The T cell ______ response allows memory cells to mount a faster response upon exposure to the same pathogen later.
What is hypersensitivity?
An excessive and harmful reaction to antigens
Which describe allergens?
-They are environmental antigens.
-They can occur in mold, dust, and pollen.
-They induce allergies.
Once a B cell binds an antigen, it phagocytizes it and displays antigen fragments on what molecules?
Match each class of hypersensitivity with its description:
-Type I = Acute
-Type II = Antibody dependent cytotoxicity
-Type III = Immune complex
-Type IV = Delayed
Antibodies function to render antigens harmless by which of the following?
Which are characteristics of a primary immune response?
It occurs with the first exposure to an antigen.
Antibodies first appear 3-6 days after exposure, peaking at day 10.
IgM antibodies are formed first.
____ diseases result from failures of self-tolerance.
An excessive harmful reaction to antigens is called ______.
A patient who is immunodeficient would have which of the following?
An underactive immune system
Antigens which induce hypersensitivity responses are called ____
Which virus causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)?
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
What are possible causes for a lack of self tolerance?
-Abnormal exposure to self antigens
-Cross reactivity between similar antigens
-Alteration of self antigens
____ refers to the inability to produce a normal immune response, resulting from a lack of immune cells or other immune mediators such as complement.
Recommended textbook explanations
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