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Preparation for the Bio SAT II.


The tip of the stamen that contains pollen.

apical meristem

Undifferentiated tissue that exhibits growth, usually in buds, shoots, and root tips.


Plant hormones that promote cell elongation and influence fruit development.


A roughly spherical underground structure containing several buds that can give rise to new plants.

cork cambium

Also the phellogen, this lateral meristem grows the plant epidermis outwards.


A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.


A hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen, leaves to fall, buds and seeds to end dormancy, and horizontal root or stem growth.


The stalk of a stamen.


The gamete-producing haploid phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations.


A hormone that causes growth in roots and stems while encouraging germination of seeds and buds.


A stack of thylakoids in a chloroplast.

guard cells

The two cells that flank all stomata and regulate the opening and closing of the pores.


A hormone that encourages growth and the development of chloroplasts, fruits, and flowers. Additionally, it delays senescenes.


The tissue of a leaf between the upper and lower epidermis specialized for photosynthesis.


A symbiotic relationship where a fungus binds to a plant root and helps the plant absorb water and minerals better, while the fungus receives more carbohydrates.

palisade layer

The upper layer of the mesophyll, in which cells are tightly packed and their chloroplasts arranged in vertical columns.


The stalk of a flower.


Built up by cork cambium, this is the outermost layer of bark.


Living vascular tissue that distributes the products of photosynthesis. They have sieve elements that are controlled by companion cells.


The ovule-producing female part of the flower. It contains the stigma, the style, and the ovary.


A soft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants, made up of parenchyma cells.


The enlarged tip of a stem that bears the floral parts.

root hairs

Also the rhizoid, these tubular outgrowths in the mature region of the root help the plant absorb more water and nutrients.


A horizontal stem that extends outwards from the main plant. Nodes located at intervals can give rise to new plants.


The aging of plant parts.


Leaves that protect buds and lie under flowers when they bloom.

spongy layer

The lower layer of the mesophyll which is less ordered and more diffuse, allowing a greater exchange of gasses.


The spore-producing diploid phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations.


The pollen-producing male part of the flower. It contains the anther and the filament.


The apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil.


Pores on the bottom of leaves used for gas exchange.


A pillar-like conduit allowing the pollen to grow to the egg cell and deliver the sperm.


A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.


A fleshy underground stem or root serving for asexual reproduction and food storage.

vascular cambium

This lateral meristem grows xylem inwards and phloem outwards.


A "pipeline" of dead cells arranged end-on-end for water and mineral transport. In some seed plants, they are specialized into tracheids and vessel elements. These also serve structural purposes.

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