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ISB Exam 1
Terms in this set (77)
Based on the Energy Use in the U.S. Food System; which of the following is an accurate statement?
Processing and preparation energy budgets are bigger than production budgets.
Which of the following presents production systems in order of MOST energy efficient to LEAST energy efficient?
Shifting or subsistence agriculture>> Intensive agriculture>> Coastal fishing>> Feed lot beef
What are the three major components in the food system as defined in the reading Energy Use in the U.S. Food System
Production; Processing; Preparation
Which of the following provides an example of how the 2nd law of thermodynamics might be applied to increase food system energy efficiency?
Reduce the number of times is processed/handled between the farm and consumer
Which of the following is true? Compared to subsistence based food systems:
Net energy output has decreased and gross energy output have increased in industrial food systems
Which of the following will increase the net (or marginal) energy output (energy efficiency) of a food system on an individual basis (i.e. on a person to person basis) the MOST?
Consume local vegetable based foods
According to Energy Use in the U.S. Food System; what has been the general purpose or biggest reason for the increasing energy inputs into our food system?
To reduce the human labor needs.
Why do vegetarian diets tend to be more energy efficient than diets that include animal products?
Vegetarian foods minimize energy loss to entropy between trophic levels.
How might the 1st law of thermodynamics be applied to increase food system energy efficiency
Use more energy efficient farm machinery and fertilizers.
According to Energy Use in the U.S. Food System; which of the following patterns have been observed in US food system between 1920 and 1970?
Food system labor has decreased; food system gross energy output has increased; food system net energy output has decreased.
A factor that affects a population to an increasing degree with population size is
a density dependent factor
Which of the following statements best predicts the future population growth of peregrine falcon populations in the United States?
Populations will continue to grow but slow down as they approach the carrying capacity of the environment.
The upper limit of population size for a species showing the S-shaped form of population growth is the
Which of the following statements concerning wildlife trafficking is correct
Demand for wildlife and wildlife products occurs in both developed and developing countries.
Which of the following statements about extinction is correct
Earth's history has been punctuated by five mass extinction events.
Which of the following best describes the concept of niche
Which of the following best describes the concept of niche
The decline of the peregrine falcon in the last century was due to:
the widespread use of DDT
Which of the following would have a greater effect on population growth as a tree population approached the carrying capacity?
competition for soil nutrients
The treaty which regulates international trade in wildlife is the
Which of the following is a direct economic benefit of ecotourism to local communities
fees charged for wildlife viewing and hunting
Woodland warblers in northeastern forests all feed on insects but in different parts of the trees. This physical separation in feeding areas is an example of:
Which of the following is an example of natural selection
resistance to fungal disease in American chestnut trees
Which of the following is a characteristic of K-selected species?
intensive parental care
The federal law that currently provides legal protection in the United States to both domestic and foreign endangered species is the:
Endangered Animals Act
Taq polymerase, an enzyme used to replicate small quantities of DNA, was discovered in
Thermus aquaticus, a hot spring bacteria found in Yellowstone National Park.
Despite their potential harm to wildlife; chemical pesticides continue to be used in most large-scale agriculture today. The most likely explanation for this behavior is that
a society often must weigh the environmental impacts of a technology against its widespread benefits to humans.
The ideological and social movement that advocates environmental protection through political action and education is
Which of the following is often the first step in a scientific investigation?
The main scientific message communicated in the book Silent Spring was that
chemical pesticides should be strictly regulated
Which of the following is an example of a physical factor in an environment
seasonal changes in temperature
The idea that the human population has the ability to grow faster than the capacity of the environment to support it is attributed to:
Which of the following would NOT be part of our biological environment?
thinning of the ozone layer
The ethical view that living species have intrinsic value and should be protected from human harm is the________________ethic.
Which of the following best describes the history of environmental impact and awareness?
ancient civilizations were aware of both their impact on the environment and its consequences
The shift from a ground-based Dobsonmeter to the satellite-based TOMS instrument in the measurement of stratospheric ozone:
increased the area measured and the certainty about ozone concentrations.
Which of the following is an applied science?
Theodore Roosevelt advanced the environmental ethics of both John Muir and Gifford Pinchot by
creating national forests; parks; monuments; wildlife refuges; and other protected areas.
The decision to dam the Hetch Hetchy Valley to create a reservoir to supply water to San Francisco was based on the__________________ ethic.
Which of the following best sums up the conclusions from the carbon dioxide experiment in the Duke experimental forest?
It demonstrated a positive effect on growth; but further study of other forests would be required before generalizations could be made.
The Montreal Protocol was a milestone in the history of environmental protection and sustainability because it:
addressed a global environmental problem through international cooperation.
Which of the following are examples of scientific misconduct?
plagiarism, p hacking, fabrication of data
What is "p Hacking?"
Manipulation of data to effect the determination of statistical significance.
What does a "p-value" tell a researcher?
The probability that an observed difference is due to chance alone.
Which of the following IS NOT one of the main points of the reading "Science isn't Broken?"
P Values are not useful in pursuing science
A measure of centrality provides:
Our best guess for a predicted value for a phenomenon
Which of the following is a measure of dispersion?
The process by which other scientists review scientific studies before publication for originality soundness of methods and analyses significance of results and conclusions is known as:
Which of the following best describes science
A formal process used to study nature by gathering evidence through observations experiments and models
You are considering buying a stink bug trap and have been provided trap data for two different trap designs. The data consists of the number of stink bugs caught in five replicate traps for either trap design. Calculate the Means and Standard Deviations for both traps. Dr. Organic's Wonder Trap! (WT) (20; 15; 25; 60; 20) Standard Trap (ST) (25; 28; 23; 30; 20) Visit
WT mean=28 sd=18.23; ST =25.2 sd=3.96
Considering the means and standard deviations for the two stink bug traps which one would you choose based on the consistency of trap performance?
Considering the means and standard deviations for the two stink bug traps which one would you choose based on highest predicted capture?
Dr. Organic's Wonder Trap!
According to Energy Use in the U.S. Food System; what has been the general purpose or biggest reason for the increasing energy inputs into our food system
to reduce the human labor needs
The network of people institutions and commercial interests involved in the production distribution and consumption of goods and services is called:
an economic system
The branch of economics that draws mainly from economic theory and practices to assess and manage the costs and benefits of economic impacts on the environment is:
When a common-pool resource is available to everyone to use as they see fit:
it is rapidly over-exploited and degraded.
The energy lost as energy passes from one trophic level to another is about:
The set of feeding relationships between organisms indicating the flow of energy and materials in an ecosystem is a:
The energy produced by primary producers which becomes available to the rest of the food web is
net primary production
Which of the following would occur if demand for oil remains constant and the supply of oil increases?
the price of oil would decrease
A molecule is:
a particle composed of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The energy represented by the motion of molecules is ______________ energy
A simplification of a closed model economic system is that it:
does not represent the exchanges of energy and materials between it and the environment.
Assuming the typical efficiency of energy transfer in an energy pyramid if gross primary production in an ecosystem was 10000 kcal/m2/year the energy available to herbivores would be__________ kcal/m2/year
The energy in food molecules is released by the process of
Which of the following describes the first law of thermodynamics?
Despite energy transformations the total energy of a closed system will remain the same.
A forested valley that provides clean water would be considered:
an ecosystem service
In photosynthesis molecules of carbon dioxide and water are transformed into:
glucose and oxygen
Which of the following is an important service provided by insects?
Pollination of crops
Recycling of dead matter
Biological control of pests
Which is the following is true?
All insects have six legs and three major body segments
Insects that go through egg; larva; pupa and adult life stages have:
Advantages of holometabolus (complete) metamorphosis include:
Adults don't compete with juveniles for food or function
Coleoptera (Beetles) are characterized by:
Sclerotized (hardened) fore (front) wings
Insects that go through hemimetabolus (incomplete) metamorphosis:
hatches into a small version of adult and grows through several "instars
Which of the following is not an insect?
The legs of insects are joined to their:
The three insect major body segments are:
head, thorax, abdomen
Which of the following are traits of all insects:
Three major body segments
One pair of antennae
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