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1,254 terms

AP PSYCHOLOGY (All Sets Combined)

This should be all of the terms, ideas, ideations.. etc etc. Based mainly on Myers Psychology 8th Edition.
STUDY
PLAY
obedience to authority
-Studies of obedience by Stanley Milgram. Milgram told participants they would be participating in a study of the effects of punishment on learning. Their task was to administer electric shock to a "learner," but in reality, the "learner" was a confederate. Found that 65% of participants could be coaxed to deliver every level of shock
-Milgram may have found high obedience because his participants were volunteers
-Raised ethical issues. To ensure that there are no long-lasting effects, participants were debriefed
Sexology
The scientific study of sex, especially of sexual dysfunctions.
Philip Zimbardo
Conducted the famous Stanford Prison experiment. It was conducted to study the power of social roles to influence people's behavior. It proved people's behavior depends to a large extent on the roles that are asked to play
mere exposure
the phenomenon by which the greater the exposure we have to a given stimulus, the more we like it
suicidal ideation
Thoughts of hurting or killing oneself. Has thoughts of hurting or killing self, but may or may not be planning to act on these thoughts. (Aaron Beck)
double slit experiment
Demonstrates the inseperability of the wave and particle natures of light. It proved how waves diffract around an object, and through destructive and constructive interference create black and white patterns of light. Black being the destructive interference and the more bright the whites are the more constructive interference there was. (Thomas Young)
inferiority complex
Adler's conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiences, a sense of personal inferiority arising from CONFLICT between the desire to be noticed and the fear of being humiliated
Alfred Adler
Neo-Freudian who thought social tensions were more important than sexual tensions in the development of personality, Developed the inferiority inferiority/ superiority complexes. He would have said that people developed their personalitys because they didn't want to be inferior. Actually excluded from the Vienna School of thought by Freud for this.
Mary Ainsworth
A developmental psychologist who compared effects of maternal separation, and devised patterns of attachment; Used "The Strange Situation"-observation of parent/child attachment and vivided the attachments into 3 broad categories (Secure 66%, Avoidant 22%, and Anxious/Ambivalent/Resistant 11%)
The strange situation
An observational measure of infant attachment that requires the infant to move through a series of introducions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver and an adult stranger in a prescribed order used by Mary Ainsworth. Also called the STRANGER PARADIGM.
Avoidant attachments
A form of attachment that is the 2nd most common (22%) according to Mary Ainsworth, where infants may resist being held by the parents and will explore the novel environment. They do not go to the parents for comfort when they return after an absence
Secure attachments
A from of attachment that is the most common(66%) according to Mary Ainsworth, where a child displays confidence when the parent is present, shows mild distress when the parent leaves, and quickly reestablishes contact when the parent returns good balance between exploration and attachment
Resistant attachments
A form of attachment pattern that is the LEAST prevalent(11%) according to Mary Ainsworth characterizing infants who remain close to the parent and fail to explore before separation, are usually distressed when the parent leaves, and combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior when the parent returns.
Noam Chomsky
United States linguist whose theory of generative grammar redefined the field of linguistics , language development; he also disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, and humans have an INBORN native ability to develop language, children can deduce the structure of their native languages from "mere exposure". Supporting evidence from the mistakes children do, and do not make, in lang acq process, also there is a critical-period hypothesis for language acquisition.
Solomon Asch
A social psychologist that studied conformity; showed that social pressure can make a person say something that is obviously incorrect ; in a famous study(line length study) in which participants were shown cards with lines of different lengths and were asked to say which line matched the line on the first card in length, even when people knew that it was wrong they were more likely to pick it if another person said it was right. Also did the Impression Formation Study
Impression Formation Study
An experiment by the social psychologist Solomon Asch where he determined that describing a professor as "warm" or "cold" significantly affected people's perceptions.
Impression Formation
The process by which a person uses behavior and appearance of others to form attitudes about them.
Albert Bandura
A behavioral psychologist who is famous for work in observational or social learning. Stated that people profit from the mistakes/successes of others., He also believed that personlaity is not just acquired through direct reinforcement but also is a result of observational learning. Conducted the famed Bobo doll Experiment
Bobo doll Experiment
An experiment that was conducted by Albert Bandura in the 1940s, 1st group of kids were placed in room with bobo doll and hammer, nothing happened; second group show movie where adult hits bag with hammer and the kids followed suit when placed with bag and hammer; people's behavior can become more violent as a result of violent media.
Philip Bard
A very prominent American psychologist who developed an alternative arousal theory with Cannon bard, known as the Cannon-Bard theory . Was also the chairman of the APA during WW2.
Cannon-Bard theory
The theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion, especially in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain
Aaron Beck
A psychologist associated with cognitive therapeutic techniques. Believe problems arise from a persons maladaptive ways of thinking about the world. Created the Beck Scales-depression inventory, hopelessness scale, suicidal ideation, anxiety inventory, and youth inventories
Cognitive Therapy
Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
Alfred Binet
The indvidual that published the first measure of intelligence(based on "mental age") in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French([specifically Parisan) school system.
Hermann Ebbinghaus
German psychologist who conducted the first extensive experiments on memory, used nonsense syllables and recorded how many times he had to study a list to remember it well, from this he was able to develop his "forgetting curve"
conformity
adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
Shows that we lose 2/3 of information in first hour of learning; rate of forgetting levels off after a few days. , Meaningless material decays rapidly, then reaches a plateau, after which little is forgotten. (Ebbinghaus), hegave himself lots of material to study went over 14,000 practice repetitions to memorize 420 nonsense syllables and tested his memory at different time intervals to create this which plots forgetting as a function of time.
Albert Ellis
An early psychoanalyst and a pioneer in Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET), focuses on altering client's patterns of irrational thinking to reduce maladaptive behavior and emotions
Rational Emotive Therapy
A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave., The therapist ACTIVELY challenges the patient's irrational beliefs.
Systematic desensitization
A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias. (Joseph Wolpe)
ABC model
Demonstrates how negative, irrational beliefs can create stress and lead to unwanted consequences
A - Activating Event
B - Belief
C - Consequences
Used in the field of Cognitive Therapy by (Ellis , Beck)
Joseph Wolpe
Used classical conditioning theory in psychotherapy and introduced Systematic Desensitatization and concepts of reciprocal inhibition which he applied to reduce anxiety. In treatment he paired relaxation with an anxiety -provoking stimulus until the stimulus no longer produced anxiety.
reciprocal inhibition
The presence of one emotional state can inhibit the occurrence of another, such as joy prevent fear or anxiety inhibiting pleasure. (Wolpe - mainly)
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
Anna Freud
Freud's daughter, his favorite daughter, she became a psychoanalysis following the footsteps of her father, Focused on the ego's ability to adapt and function; more focus on normal behavior than on pathological behavior, described ten different defense mechanisms by the ego to defend against anxiety and also, felt that you couldn't analyze children until they were mature enough to form a transference, disagreed with her father about woman (Neo-Freudian)
transference
In psychoanalysis, the process whereby emotions are passed on or displaced from one person to another
Erik Erikson
Neo- Freudian who proposed that as humans develop, they have psycho-social tasks that, if completed, lead to healthy development. , People evolve through 8 STAGES of personality development over the life span. Each stage marked by psychological crisis that involves confronting "who am I". Also described "basic trust" and also worked with Anna Freud( Freud's daughter)
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
John Garcia
His experiments in injecting animals with drugs that made them nauseous after feeding them a certain food helped to establish the idea that organisms learn best behaviors that affect survival., Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance. Also showed that taste preferences were established by biological predispositions.
Taste Aversion
A type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation (John Garcia).
Howard Gardner
Laid out the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in his book Frames of Mind. Claimed that pencil and paper IQ tests do not capture the full range of human intelligences, and that we all have individual profiles of strengths and weaknesses across multiple intelligence dimensions. He identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, spatial (visual), interpersonal (the ability to understand others), intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself), and naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world)
Frames of Mind
types of intelligence according to Gardner
Theory of multiple intelligences
Gardner's theory, which proposes at least 8 independent intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities
Garcia Effect
Named after researcher John Garcia, it is basically food aversion that occurs when people attribute illness to a particular food.
Harry Harlow
Psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using Rhesus monkeys and artificial mothers. Wire Mother vs. Cloth mother)> Babies would get food from Wire mother, but would cling to and imprint on cloth mother. Showed that they needed contact as well as nurishment. Also proving that monkey preferred the soft cloth mother and due to isolation they never learned how to mate.
Hermann von Helmholtz
German physiologist who demonstrated that the movement of impulses in the nerves and in the brain was not instantaneous, but instead took a small but finite amount of time. Against Vitalism, believed in the conservation of energy in animals and also modified the Tichromatic theory. Estimated the speed of nerve conduction at (apprx 90 ft/sec) , Also proposed that specific sound frequencies vibrate specific portions of the basilar membrane producing distinct pitches
Vitalism
Belief in a life force outside the jurisdiction of physical & chemical laws; eventually crumbled after lab synthesis of complex organic molecules
Basilar membrane
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear(supporting the organs of Corti) and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells. The fibers of this are short and stiff near the oval window and long and fleaxible near the apex of the cochlea. This difference in structure allows the basilar membrane to help transduce pitch and initiating a chain of events that results in a nerve impulse traveling to the brain
Harry Helson
Theorist who endorses the life events model rather than the normative-crisis model for middle adulthood because timing of particular events in adults life, NOT the age, determine the course of personality development
Life events model
the approach to personality development that is based on the timing of particular events in an adult's life rather than on age per se (Helson). Is the opposite of Normative Crisis Model.
Normative crisis model
The traditional approach to adult personality development is which views personality development in terms of fairly universal stages, tied to a sequence of age-related crises.
Ernest Hilgard
Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic (reduction of pain) effect; studies showing that a hypnotic trance includes a "hidden observer," (arm in ice water test) suggesting that there is some subconscious control during hypnosis.Also called the dissociation theory of split consciousness-hynotized part of brain and an independent observer which works independently., Also created the Stanford hypnotic susceptibility scale.
hidden observer
Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.
dissociation theory
According to this theory, hypnotized subjects dissociate, or split, various aspects of their behavior and perceptions from the "self" that normally controls these functions. Developed by (Ernest Hilgard)
Hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) SUGGESTS to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur.
analgesia
The absence of pain sensations in the presence of a normally painful stimulus
Karen Horney
A neo-Freudian( and feminist) who criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends; concept of "basic anxiety". Also said that psychoanalysis was biased against woman, and that men acted superior because they had "Womb Envy"
basic anxiety
Horney's theory of the deep-seated form of anxiety in children that is associated with feelings of being isolated and helpless in a world perceived as potentially threatening and hostile.
Penis Envy
In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
Womb Envy
The envy of pregnancy, childbirth, and motherhood, which results in the unconscious depreciation of women. Mens impulse toward creative work may be an over-compensation for their small role in procreation.
Electra complex
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals, counterpart to the Oedipus complex for females
Oedipus complex
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father, counterpart to the Electra Complex for males.
William James
Developed pragmatism(Functionalism). One of the founders of modern psychology, and the first to attempt to apply psychology as a science rather than a philosophy. Wrote first psychology textbook "The Principles of Psychology" and was interested in the the Meaning of Truth, (influenced by Darwin!)
Functionalism
William James school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes FUNCTION - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. (influenced by Darwin!)
Edward Titchner
He introduced structuralism, and was a student of Wilhelm Wudnt; He also encouraged introspection. Broke onsciousness down into three elements: physical sensations, feeling, and images
Structuralism
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. (Edward Titchner)
Wilhelm Wudnt
Study the structure of the mind through introspection, developed the FIRST psychological lab inn Leipzig. Teacher of Edward Titchner.
Alfred Kinsey
College professor at Indiana University, Bloomington, author of "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female;" collectively known as the Kinsey Report; report was controversial and inflammatory but well-received and immensely popular. Factored in the spurring of research for birth control., 1) Publishes a study based on male sexuality 2) Took a sample of 10,000 men, data said that sexual orientation was diverse and many were bi
Kinsey Report
"Sexual Behavior in the Human Male & Female": scientific study by Alfred Kinsey, turned traditional presumptions about sex and marriage on its head. high counts of homosexuality, masturbation, extramarital affairs, sexuality more fit to a continuum, homosexual tendencies are higher than expected, homosexual thoughts higher than expected. However, began interviewing people about their sexual behaviors in 1938. 17500 individuals, most of them were from University of Indiana and the surrounding community (White well educated individuals) FAILED to obtain a Representative sample.
Kinsey Scale
Kinsey 's rated sexuality on a 7-point scale ranging from exclusively heterosexual behavior (0) to exclusively homosexual behavior (6) (7 being asexual) Problem is he only looked at sexual behavior, not fantasies.
Ancel Keys
Developed the Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene at the University of Minnesota, , Led the hunger experiment where men were semistarved. The participants became food-obsessed, supports Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Wolfgang Kohler
A Gestalt psychologist who became known for his experiments with chimpanzees and insight in problem solving. He believed that by perceiving the WHOLE situation, chimps were able to create novel solutions to problems (rather than just by trial and error). Through insight, chimps were able to use props in order to retrieve rewards., started Gestalt psychology with 2 companions Kurt Koffka, Max Wertheimer
Kurt Koffka
Worked with Wertheimer on his early perception experiments. Wrote Perception: An Introduction To Gestalt Theory which got recognition by the US.
Carl Lange
Danish physiologist who proposed a theory of emotion similar to, and about the same time as James' theory that awareness of physiological responses leads to experiences of emotion.
Simon LeVay
Wrote Sexual Brain and Queer Science, completed research on the DNA and finding a gay gene, he found the gene INAH3 was more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men. Also found that certain brain regions (specifically, a cluster of cells on the hypothalamus) is different in homosexual(smaller) versus heterosexual men
Elizabeth Loftus
This psychologist discovered the misinformation effect: After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember; as memory fades with time following an event, the injection of misinformation becomes easier, research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony, Along with John Palmer, showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned.
misinformation effect
Occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post event information
memory construction
The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:
Abraham Maslow
A humanistic psychologist who proposed the hierarchy of needs, also developed the view that the human needs for security, love, belonging, self-esteem and self-actualization were more important than physiological needs for food, sleep and sex. He developed a theory of a hierarchy of human needs, of which the highest were the need for "self-actualization"
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's Theory of Motivation which states that we must achieve lower level needs, such as food, shelter, and safety before we can achieve higher level needs, such as belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
self-actualization
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Masters and Johnson
These two authors wrote a book called "Human Sexual Response" which proved that sex isn't just pleasurable for men., among the first to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle (1950s-60s); 4 levels include excitement, plateau, orgasm , and resolution
Stanley Milgram
Social psychologist that conducted studies in an effort to understand some of the vast horrors of World War II., obedience to authority; had participants administer what they believed were dangerous electrical shocks to other participants; wanted to see if Germans were an aberration or if all people were capable of committing evil actions., Did studies with humans where someone has charge over a button and is instructed to press it to punish the other volunteer for a wrong answer. In most cases, the person pressed the button well after the other subject could have died because a person will follow instructions to a fault from authority figures.
excitement phase
1st phase of the sexual response cycle; characterized by the genital areas becoming engorged with blood, causing the man's penis to become partially erect and the woman's clitoris to swell and the inner lips covering her vagina to open up. (Masters and Johnson)
plateau phase
the Second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm. (Masters and Johnson)
orgasm phase
a series of rhythmic contractions of the muscles of the vaginal walls or the penis, also the Third and shortest phase of sexual response. (Masters and Johnson)
resolution phase
in sexual intercourse, the stage of relaxation that follows orgasm. (Masters and Johnson)
Sexual Response
Series of psychological and physiological changes that occur in the body during sexual behavior., its four stages are excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution. (Masters and Johnson)
lost-letter
Experiment conducted by Stanley Milgram to test how helpful people are to strangers not present, and their attitudes towards various groups
confederate
Someone who appears to be a research participant but actually is part of the research team.
debriefing
giving participants in a research study a complete explanation of the study after the study is completed
Carl Jung
Student of Freud. Broke over Freud's emphasis of sexuality. Believed all people had a collective unconscious of the past generations, but the connection faded due to modernization., "the collective unconscious" and mythic "archetypes"
Frued's follower. He also believed that Libido was all types of energy not just sexual. identified archetypes by studying dreams, visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, religions. Is also the Father of analytical psychologist.
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
personal unconscious
According to Jung, the level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten.
Ivan Pavlov
a Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) who discovered classical conditioning, by training dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell, simplest form of classical conditioning is reminiscent of what Aristotle would have called the law of contiguity
law of contiguity
A law of association holding that events that occur in close proximity to each other in time or space are readily associated with each other. ( Aristotle) similar to classical conditioning.
Jean Piaget
Swiss psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children., Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation.
assimilation
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance
accomodation
According to Jean Piaget, mental processes that restructures existing schemas so that the new info is better understood ex:a child's schema of a bird includes any flying object, until they learn that a butterfly or a plane is not a bird
Philippe Pinel
He insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind, and who contributed to the more humane treatment of psychiatric patients in the late 1700s
Carl Rogers
Humanistic psychologist who stressed the inportance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth. , Developed "client-centered" therapy, self theory, and also unconditional positive regard
client-centered therapy
A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
self theory
The theory according to Carl Rogers that when we are unsure of our attitudes, we infer them much as would someone observing us, by looking at our behavior and the circumstances under which it occurs
unconditional positive regard
According to Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Stanley Schachter
Developed the 2 factor emotion theory-physiological happens first, cognitive appraisal must be made in order to experience emotion. Had .Experiments on the Spillover Effect.
spillover effect
occasions when our emotional response to one event carries over into our response to another event. (Stanley Schachter)
Two-factor theory of emotion
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal, The idea that emotional experience is the result of a two-step self perception process in which people first experience physiological arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it.
cognitive appraisal
the idea that to feel stress you need to perceive a threat and come to the conclusion that you may not have adequate resources to deal with the threat.
Theodore Simon
Working with Binet, he published a test of general mental ability that was loaded with items that required abstract reasoning skills rather than sensory skills. Helped figure out mental Age
John Locke
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
mental age
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
B.F Skinner
A behaviorist and pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. he is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pidgeons and rats.
Charles Spearman
An english psychologist, known for his work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. He also did seminal work on models for human intelligence, including his theory that disparate cognitive test scores reflect a single general factor and coining the term g factor. Predicted that doing good on one part of a test should mean that you do good on another part.
tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas. (Empty Slate)
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
G factor
SPEARMAN'S term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree
General Intelligence
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Robert Sternberg
A professor at Yale and the author of Successful Intelligence, the concept of successful intelligence contrasts with the more narrow academic intelligence measured by IQ tests and other standardized examinations". evised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
Triarchic Theory
Theory proposed by Robert Sternberg that states that intelligence consists of three parts including Analytic = the ability to solve problems, Creative = the ability to deal with new situations, and Practical = the ability to adjust and cope with one's environment
Lewis Terman
Revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life. he test then became the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. He is also known for his longitudinal research on gifted kids.
longitudinal research
Collect data from the same group of individuals as they age, useful in life span studies, HOWEVER downsides are that participants may withdraw, die, move away, influenced by changing historical context
Edward Thorndike
Pioneer in operant conditioning who discovered concepts in intstrumental learning such as the law of effect. Known for his work with cats in puzzle boxes.
law of effect
Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
instrumental learning
Associative learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences
John Watson
Founder of behaviorism, the view that psychology should restrict its efforts to studying observable behaviors, not mental processes, amous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat
Little Albert study
Study by John Watson and Reyner (1920), in which a little boy(11 months( became afraid of white fuzzy objects, especially white rats because he associated them with a loud clang after seeing a bunny and hearing a loud clang at the same time.
Hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur. Freud used this to enter the unconscious of his patients
Benjamin Whorf
A linguist who noticed that the more words that you have for a certain type of thing, the more subtle the distinctions you recognize in it. Also , language we use might control, and in some ways limit our thinking. For example since the Hopi didn't have a grammatical structure that as useful for the past, they rarely talked or worried about it.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
The notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person's thoughts (Benjamin Whorf)
Thomas Young
Published "A Theory of Color Vision" in England (his theory was later called the trichromatic theory), , Double Slit Interference Experiment: Light is made of waves
Stanford Prison experiment
Philip Zimbardo's study of the effect of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play either prisoners or guards in a mock prison. The study was ended early because of the "guards'" role-induced cruelty. Proved that situational forces can lead ordinary people to exhibit horrendous behavior.
role
the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group
Groupthink
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (Think Kennedy's Advisors)
forensic psychology
field that blends psychology, law, and criminal justice. These psychologists make legal evaluations of a person's mental competency to stand trial, the state of mind of a defendant at the time of a crime, the fitness of a parent to have custody of children, or allegations of child abuse. (Yeah I just had to use this picture, its hilarious)
Phrenologist
A scientist who studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head to determine whether these physical attributes are linked to criminal behavior; believed that external cranial characteristics dictate which areas of the brain control physical activity.
field experiments
Applies the scientific method to experimentally examine an occurence in the real world (or in naturally-occurring environments) rather than in the laboratory.
Basic research
One of the two main types of research, pure research that aims to confirm an existing theory or to learn more about a concept or phenomenon
Scientific method
A general approach to gathering information and answering questions so that errors and biases are minimized
Applied research
One of the two main types of research, conducted specifically to solve practical problems and improve the quality of life.
validity
the extent to which the data collected address the research hypothesis in the way intended
reliability
Yielding consistent results; Does not insure validity
replicated
research is reliable when it can be ___________
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
practice effect
is an improvement in performance as a result of repeated practice with a task, repeated testing causes people to remember some of the test items; side effect of longitudinal studies
longitudinal studies
research method in which data is collected about a group of participants over a number of years to assess how certain characteristics change or remain the same during development, , follow the same children over different ages, Benefits: can track long-term effects, controls for differences over different people, Problems: time, money, drop-outs
Cohort
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
Descriptive research
is any type of research that describes the "who, what, when, where" of a situation, not what caused it
case study
A research method used to get a full, detailed picture of one subject or a small group of subjects, is also an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
generalizable
Characteristic of a sample that refers to the degree to which findings based on the sample can be used to make accurate statements about the population of interest.
Columbine
In 1999, two students in Littleton, Colorado, brought weapons to school and killed 12 students and wounded many others before killing themselves. The tragedy was one of seven such shootings in the US that year, and led to changes in gun control, school safety measures, and the monitoring of media violence. Shows how one case study can have powerful, unnecessary and dangerous effects.
naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Correlational Research
A research strategy that identifies the relationships between two or more variables in order to describe how these variables change together.
hidden variable
an extraneous variable that does not have a direct connection to the correlation, and is thus hard to recognize
Correlation
a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other, remember _____________ not causation.
Positive Correlation
A correlation where as one variable increases, the other also increases, or as one decreases so does the other. Both variables move in the same direction. First Graph
Negative Correlation
a correlation where one two variables tend to move in the opposite direction (example: the number of pages printed and the amount of ink left in your printer are negatively correlated. The more pages printed, the less ink you have left.) Middle Graph
Correlational Coefficient
a statistical measure expressing the relationship between two or more variables with a single number between 1 & 1, inclusive
survey method
A research technique that questions a sample of people to collect information about their attitudes or behaviors. Probably the most common
sample
items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population
population
the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn
Random selection
a sampling method in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process
causation
a relationship between variables such that change in the value of one is directly responsible for change in the value of the other
experimental method
a research technique in which an investigator deliberately manipulates selected events or circumstances and then measures the effects of those manipulations on subsequent behavior to try an determine if there is a cause an effect relationship.
Laboratory experiments
Studies that take place under controlled conditions where the researcher deliberately manipulates the independent variable to see its effect on a dependent variable.
experimental group
A subject or group of subjects in an experiment that is exposed to the factor or condition being tested.
control group
in an experiment, a group that serves as a standard of comparison with another group to which the control group is identical except for one factor
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
Dependent Variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
confounding variables
factors that cause differences between the experimental group and the control group other than the independent variable, you DO NOT want these at all.
Operationalize
Process by which we make a theoretical variable one that we can measure
placebo
an inert substance given to the control group in an experiment
blind study
As a way to avoid the placebo effect in research, this type of study is designed without the subject's knowledge of the anticipated results and sometimes even the nature of the study. The subjects are said to be 'blind' to the expected results.
double blind study
An experimental procedure in which both researchers and participants are uninformed about the nature of the independent variable being administered
tabulation
The orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format showing the number of responses to each response category; tallying.
degrees of freedom
A parameter of the t distribution. When the t distribution is used in the computation of an interval estimate of a population mean, the appropriate t distribution has n-1 degrees of freedom, where n is the size of the simple random sample.
Chi Square
One of the most basic tests for statistical significance that is particularly appropriate for testing hypotheses about frequencies arranged in a frequency or contingency table., sum of (observed-expectated)^2/expected, if your value is above the expected value then you reject your null hypothesis, if below or equal you except you null hypothesis
null hypothesis
The hypothesis that states there is no difference between two or more sets of data. Stating opposite of what you expect to find
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
self-fulfilling prophecy
process in which a person's expectation about another elicits behavior from the second person that confirms the expectation; evidenced in a study by Rosenthal and Jacobsen at an elementary school where students performed to the teacher's expectation, AKA Pygmalion Effect
Critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Inductive Reasoning
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles. Ex. "All of the ice we have examined so far is cold.Therefore, all ice is cold."Personification assigning human qualities to inanimate objects or concepts. Wordsworth's "the sea that bares her bosom to the moon."
Rosenthal
A psychologist who conducted a study on self-fulfilling prophecy with students expected to improve, social expectations influence how one treats and behaves toward those people, the way they are treated shape them into what is socially expected
clinical case study
A detailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury or disease.
speculation
a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)
statistically significant
a term used to describe research results when the outcome of a statistical test indicates that the probability of those results occurring by chance is small
meta-analysis
A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies., A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects
curvilinear relationship
A relationship in which increases in the values of the first variable are accompanied by both increases and decreases in the values of the second variable.
halo effect
To generalize and perceive that a persona has a whole set of characteristics when your have actually observed only one characteristic, trait or behavior
gender bias
Stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one over the other
courtesy bias
the tendency of those being surveyed to provide responses that will please and/or not offend the interviewer, moderator, or other participants
cultural bias
An aspect of an intelligence test in which the wording used in questions may be more familiar to people of one social group than to another group.
ageism
aged-based discrimination that is usually toward the elderly, but can be against anyone
pseudo-psychology
Any false and unscientific system of beliefs and practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior. Ex: Palm readers, psychics etcetera.
commonsense psychology
Everyday, nonscientific collection of psychological data used to understand the social world and guide our behavior.
applied psychology
any of several branches of psychology that seek to apply psychological principles to practical problems of education or industry or marketing etc.
Clever Hans
A German horse that was claimed to have been able to perform math and other intellectual tasks. It was determined that the horse wasn't actually performing these mental tasks but was watching the reaction(cues) of the human observers.
axioms
Propositions built on fundemental truths that lead to the creation of theorems
P. T. Barnum effect
-tendency of people to accept high base rate descriptions as accurate.
-personal validation are a flawed method for evaluating a tests validity (astrology, card readers)
P. T. Barnum
A nineteenth-century American showman known for his circus, "The Greatest Show on Earth." His sideshows were particularly notable, even though many of the "freaks" he advertised were hoaxes." AFter Barnum's death, his circus was absorbed into the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus.
Objective
without bias or prejudice; detached
representative sampling
a sample from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population.
astrology
a pseudoscience claiming divination by the positions of the planets and sun and moon
experimenter effect
An experimenter-related artifact that results when the hypothesis held by the experimenter leads unintentionally to behavior toward the subjects that, in turn, increases the likelihood that the hypothesis will be confirmed
Observer bias
expectations or biases of the observer that might distort or influence his or her interpretation of what was actually observed
Theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
zero correlation
the absence of a relationship between two or more variables as determined by a correlational statistic. Often abbreviated as 'r=0.'
Error
a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention, you probably have this if your correlation coeifcent is above 1 or below -1.
ex post facto study
A type nonexperimental research design that involves the comparison of subjects, who are placed in contrast groups, on the basis of some pre-existing characteristic of the subjects.
response bias
anything in the survey design that influences the responses from the sample
frequency polygon
graph of a frequency distribution that shows the number of instances of obtained scores, usually with the data points connect by straight lines
frequency distribution
A summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs
measure of central tendency
The three measures are: mode, median, and mean. They usually fall in the middle of the distribution and tell us certain facts about it.
mode
The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution.
median
The middle number in a set of numbers that are listed in order
mean
an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n
normal distribution
bell-shaped curve that results when the values of a trait in a population are plotted against their frequency
debriefing
a procedure to inform participants about the true nature of an experiment after its completion
informed consent
the agreement of participants to take part in an experiment and their acknowledgement that they understand the nature of their participation in the research, and have been fully informed about the general nature of the research, its goals, and methods
range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
inferential statistics
Numerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chance.
standard deviation
percentile score
A score that indicates the percentage of people who achieved the same as or less than a particular score.
Mentalism
An approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental, or "inner," dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension either directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all.
Immanuel Kant
wrote "Critique of Pure Reason"; 12 Innate categories of thought (faculties) superimposed on sensory experience.His central thesis—that the possibility of human knowledge presupposes the active participation of the human mind. The categorical imperative
categorical imperative
A concept developed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant as an ethical guideline for behavior. In deciding whether an action is right or wrong a person should evaluate the action in terms of what would happen if everybody else in the same situation, or category, acted the same way.
Iceberg theory
Freud's theory that the conscious was only a very small part of the mind and did not account for most of the psychological factors that affect behavior. Instead most of the psychological factors that effect behavior are found in the unconscious. There is also a a preconscious level.
Unconscious
According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories mainly formed during childhood. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Conscious level
The level at which mental activities that people are normally aware of occur
Preconscious level
A level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious.
Unconscious level
The mental level containing events and feelings that we find unacceptable for our conscious minds. We do not have access to it and these thoughts stay hidden (repressed) but make up most of who we are. As we will find out, the key to psychoanalytic therapy is to find ways to delve into the _______________
Psyche
The conscious(Ego) unconscious(Id), and preconscious(Superego) drives in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality
Id
The drive of the psyche that contains animalistic and most basic instincts, and also develops first( A baby psyche is all of this drive), it is also located in your unconscious so you are largely unaware of it. It also works on the pleasure principle.
pleasure principle
Freud's theory regarding the id's desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification.
Ego
The drive of your psyche that is is located in our conscious so it is the part of our personality that we are aware of and everyone sees. It works on the reality principle and is generally the boss of your personality(Also develops after the Id, but before the Superego.
reality principle
According the Freud, the attempt by the ego to satisfy both the id and the superego while still considering the reality of the situation.
Superego
The drive of your psyche that develops last(around the age of 8) and is located in the preconscious. It is the our morals and our sense of right and wrong, and also future aspirations. Like a Conscience
oral stage
Freud's first stage of personality development, from birth to about age 2, during which the instincts of infants are focused on the mouth as the primary pleasure center.
anal stage
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world.
anal retentive
A fixation that develops during the anal stage if a child's freedom to have bowel movements is restricted that can result in obsessively organized and meticulous personality traits
latency stage
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers.
erogenous zone
The area of the body where the id's pleasure seeking energies are focused during a particular stage of psychosexual development.
genital stage
Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).
phallic stage
Freud's third stage of personality development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals.
libido
In Freud's theory, the instinctual (and sexual) life force that, working on the pleasure principle and seeking immediate gratification, energizes the id.
psychosexual stages
The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
anal expulsive character
Character type that results from a fixation at the early anal stage. Person may be overly generous or has trouble with bowel control
Oedipus Complex
According to Freud, a conflict that develops in the phallic stage, where a boy has sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Electra Complex
According to Freud a conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
penis envy
In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
defense mechanisms
In psychoanalytic theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
Repression
the classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
Denial
defense mechanism by which people refuse to believe or even to perceive painful realities.
Displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
Projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Reaction Formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
Regression
psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
Rationalization
defense mechanism that offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
Intellectualization
A defense mechanism that involves thinking abstractly about stressful problems as a way of detaching oneself from them;
Sublimation
a defense mechanism in which unacceptable energies are directed into socially admirable outlets, such as art, exercise
Dream Interpretation
a method developed by Freud in which the symbols of the manifest content of dreams that are recalled by the patient are interpreted to reveal their latent content
Interpretation of Dreams
Freud's crowning achievement, a book written in 1900 about the treatment of people with mental disorders that tried to garner support for his psychoanalytical theories. In this book, Freud first described his theories about the psychic apparatus (id, ego, superego), wish-fulfillment as a main goal of dreams, dream analysis, and concepts that would later become his theory of the Oedipus complex.
Manifest Content
according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent, or hidden, content).
Latent Content
according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content). Freud believed that this functions as a safety valve.
wish-fulfillment
Freud's belief that dreams were an expression of the id's impulses, superego commands ego to convert wishes into symbols
Hypnotic suggestibility
the degree to which a subject is responsive to suggestions, suggestions can involve making or not making appropriate motor movements in response to imagined situations, cognitive suggestions involveing changes in perception, thought and memory can also be made, higher among people who have rich fantasy lives( Do you play World of Warcraft, Star Wars etc.etc.)
posthypnotic amnesia
Supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.
role theory
According to this theory, subjects under hypnosis merely act in accordance with the hypnotized role. They are not in a special state
state theory
According to this theory, hypnotized people experience an altered state of consciousness
dissociation theory
According to this theory, hypnotized subjects dissociate, or split, various aspects of their behavior and perceptions from the "self" that normally controls these functions
Ernest Hilgard
A psychologist who believed that hypnosis worked only on the immediate conscious mind of a person. he also believes that there is a hidden part of the mind(hidden observer) that is very much aware of the hypnotic subjects activities and sensations.
hidden observer
Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis
Free Association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing, allowing some of the unconscious to come through.
Transference
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent).
Karen Horney
A neo-Freudian psychologist that criticized Freud, stated that personality is molded by current fears and impulses, rather than being determined solely by childhood experiences and instincts, neurotic trends; concept of "basic anxiety", also said that men exhibit womb envy.
womb envy
A term coined by Karen Horney, is the neo-Freudian feminist equivalent of penis envy. Horney suggests that it is the unexpressed anxiety felt by some men over women's ability to give birth, leading them to dominate women or driving them to succeed in order for their names to live on
Neo-Freudians
Group of psychologists who agree with Freud's emphasis on the impact of childhood on one's life, but move away from a sole focus on sex and aggression, Include Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Erik Erikson
Erik Erickson
A neo-Freudian psychologist that hypothesized that people face pass through 8 social development stages from infancy to old age. Each challenge has an outcome that affects a persons social and personality development.
Alfred Adler
A neo-Freudian psychologist that introduced concept of "inferiority complex" and stressed the importance of birth order and agreed with Freud that childhood is important but believed that childhood social, not sexual, tentions are crucial for personality formation. inferiority complex, our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer childhood feelings of inferiority.
Carl Jung
A neo-Freudian psychologist that argue that the unconscious is actually divided up into two parts, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious and identified archetypes by studying dreams, visions, paintings, poetry, folk stories, myths, religions
inferiority complex
Adler's theory of the feelings of inadequacy or inferiority in young children that influence their developing personalities and create desires to overcome
superiority complex
A complex when one Overcompensates for feelings of normal inferiority..... a means of inflating one's self-importance in order to overcome inferiority feelings, according to Adler
personal unconscious
Jung's term for an unconscious region of mind comprising a reservoir of the individual's repressed memories and impulses
collective unconscious
Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history.
Erich Fromm
A neo-Freudian psychologist that centerd his theory around the need to belong and the loneliness freedom brings , believed personality is to a considerable extent a reflection of factors such as social class, minority status, education, vocation, religious and philosophical background.
archetypes
According to Jung, emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning.
Projective tests
A personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of one's inner thoughts and feelings
Thematic Apperception Test
(TAT) A projective test consisting of drawings of ambiguous human situations, which the test taker describes; thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts, and motives, which are projected onto the test materials.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots.
Resistance
an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness
Trust versus mistrust
Erikson's first psychosocial stage. Infants learn "basic trust" if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention) are met.
Autonomy versus doubt
The second stage in Erickson's theory of development, as the child begins to control bowels and other bodily functions, learns language, and begins to receive orders from adult authorities. An inevitable conflict arises: Who's in charge here?
Initiative versus guilt
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a health sense of initiative and through the development of a superego, or conscience that is not overly strict and/or guilt-ridden
Industry versus inferiority
The fourth of erison's eight psychosocial crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent. Happens around the time you first enter school.
Identity versus role confusion
In Erik Erikson's theory, the fifth stage of development in which adolescents explore who they are and how they fit into society.
Intimacy versus isolation
Erikson's sixth stage of development. Adults see someone with whom to share their lives in an eduring and self-sacrificing commitment. Without such commitment, they risk profound aloneness and isolation.
Generativity versus stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation (a sense of inactivity or lifelessness)
mid life crisis
Feelings of boredom and stagnation in middle adulthood; time when adults discover they no longer feel fulfilled in their jobs or personal lives and attempt to make a decisive shift in career or lifestyle(formed in Erikson's 7th Stage)
Integrity versus despair
Erickson's final, eighth stage, where the person asks himself or herself: "After seventy, eighty, or ninety years of life, do I have anything of interest and value to say to the next generation? Or not?", A conflict in old age between feelings of integrity and the despair of viewing previous life events with regret.
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
psychosocial development
Erikson described eight stages of development in which the individual moves between two opposing themes, this is called:
Humanistic school
The branch of Psychology that focuses on a person's capacity for personal growth, freedom to choose a destiny(Free Will), positive qualities, and self actualizing tendencies. Includes critical concepts like Client- centered therapy- Born good; free will, Incongruence, Basically (Think you can be the change you want in the world)
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Theory of Motivation which states that we must achieve lower level needs, such as food, shelter, and safety before we can achieve higher level needs, such as belonging, esteem, and self-actualization.
Abraham Maslow
The first humanistic psychologist ; created the hierarchy of needs-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization is the highest transcendence
free will
the human ability to make decisions without being forced to choose or act in one specific way, a key of the humanistic school
Determinism
a philosophy that says things are determined in ways that are out of human hands, most schools EXCEPT the Humanistic use this
Incongruence
The degree of disparity between one's self-concept and one's actual experience.
self-actualization
according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
self-concept
All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" In order to reach self actulization it must be positive.
Carl Rogers
Very Important Humanistic psychologist who stressed the inportance of acceptance, genuineness, and empathy in fostering human growth through his Self Theory(Also called Client Centered Theory)
self theory
Carl Rogers's theory of personality, which emphasizes the individual's active attempts to satisfy his needs in a manner that is consistent with his self-concept.
actualizing tendency
Carl Roger's concept; The innate inclination toward growth that motivates all human behavior.
genuineness
The ability to present oneself honestly and spontaneously. (So the opposite of most politicians)
acceptance
Conformity that involves both acting and believing in accord with social pressure.
empathy
Identification with and understanding of another's situation, feelings, and motives
unconditional positive regard
according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
client centered therapy
A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
nondirective
therapy style in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudgmental listener while the client talks,
active listening
empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy, the form of psychological treatment that if you get people are most likely to make fun of you for paying for it.
Gestalt psychologist
Study the ways the WHOLE brain perceives and interprets information from the senses
phenomenological approach
the view that to fully understand the causes of another person's behavior requires an understanding not of the physical or objective reality of the person's world, but of how he or she subjectively experiences that world
Clark Moustakas
is an American psychologist and one of the leading experts on humanistic and clinical psychology. He helped establish the Association for Humanistic Psychology and the Journal for Humanistic Psychology. He is the author of numerous books and articles on humanistic psychology
American Psychological Association
scientific and professional society of psychologists and educators; world's largest association of psychologists; founded in 1892; made up of 53 divisions, each representing a specific area
Rollo May
Existiential humanist who embrassed free will and the in herently difficult and tragic aspects of the human condition, authored the influential book Love and Will
Existentialist
a philosopher who emphasizes freedom of choice and personal responsibility but who regards human existence in a hostile universe as unexplainable, influenced humanistic psychology greatly
Kurt Goldstein
(neuropsychiatrist) studied/treated brain-injured soldiers; developed holistic approach.
Edmund Husserl
father of phenomenology, method of bracketing: excluding from further interest elements that do not belong in universal essence
Thomas Szasz
A humanistic psychologist that argues that mental illness does not even exist, it is a "myth".He argues that the symptoms used as evidence of mental illness are merely medical labels that allow professional intervention into what are social problems-deviant people violating social norms.
Fritz Perls
Originator of Gastalt theory. Considered most dreams a special message about what is missing in our lives, what we avoid doing, or feelings that need to be "re-owned." Believed that dreams are a way of filling gaps in personal experience. Method of analyzing dreams involved speaking for characters and objects in your dreams.
Sartre
French existentialist who said human beings simply eist "they turn up, appear on the scene" where they have to define themselves because they are alone in a meaningless life with no God; man is condemned to be free, influenced the phenomenological approach
Noam Chomsky
Psychologist that specialized in language development; disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, humans have an inborn native ability to develop language
Albert Ellis
A Cognitive Psychologist, founder of school of psychology known as Rational Emotive Therapy (REBT). Became one of the first psychologists to specialize in sexual and marital problems. Believes strongly in the individual's power over his or her own life. Looks to expose and confront the dysfunctional thoughts of their clients
Phonemes
the smallest units of sound in a language that are distinctive for speakers of the language, like constants vowels in english, about about 44 different
Morphemes
Smallest meaningful units of speech; simple words, suffixes, prefixes; examples: red, hot, calm, -ed, pre-
syntax
the grammatical arrangement of words in sentences
Babbling stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
telegraphic speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words
overgeneralization
applying grammar rules in areas they don't apply ("I writed a story"; goed; comed)
operant conditioning
Theory of Behaviorist BF Skinner, that is one of the way that explains why kids acquire language, , a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
language acquisition device
Chomsky's concept of an innate, prewired mechanism in the brain that allows children to acquire language naturally
nativist theory of language acquisition
-Chomsky
-there is an infinite number of sentences in language, therefore it is impossible for a child to learn purely from imitation
-children learn the rules of language
-humans are equip with a language acquisition device..thus just like birds learn to fly, we learn to talk
Benjamin Whorf
A linguist/psychologist who noticed that the more words that you have for a certain type of thing, the more subtle the distinctions you recognize in it. Also came up with a concept called linguistic relativity hypothesis, based partially on the relization that the the Hopi Indian tribe in North America had very few words in their language for past tense, and never ever thought about the past.
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
the hypothesis that language determines, or at least influences, the way we think (Benjamin Whorf)
concepts
mental categories for classifying events, objects, and ideas on the basis of their common features or properties
prototypes
A mental image that incorporates the features we associate with a category
image
a mental representation of an event or object
Algorithms
Problem-solving procedures or formulas that guarantee a correct outcome, if correctly applied, Think Formulas in Mathematics
Heuristics
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgment and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier, but more error-prone than algorithms
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common
Representativeness Heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments. (
Belief bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
Belief perseverance
A tendency of clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
rigidity
the quality or state of being unyielding or stiff
mental sets
barriers to problem solving that occur when we apply only methods that have worked in the past rather than trying new or different strategies
functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving, thinking of penny to spend only etc etc etc..
confirmation bias
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
Framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments, Like if I said there is a 90% life rate compared to me saying there is a 10% death rate.
Creativity
the capacity to use information and/or abilities in a new and original way
divergent thinking
thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions, seen as being more creative than convergent thinking
Convergent thinking
a type of critical thinking in which one evaluates existing possible solutions to a problem to choose the best one
Cognitive psychology
perspective that focuses on the internal mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
Rational Emotive Therapy
A Cognitive Therapy based on Albert Ellis' theory that cognitions control our emotions and behaviors; therefore, changing the way we think about things will affect the way we feel and the way we behave.
schema
A collection of basic knowledge about a category of information; serves as a means of organization and interpretation of that information
Aaron Beck
Considered the father of Cognitive Therapy, and the cognitive triad , he proposed that during childhood and adolescence some people undergo wrenching experiences such as the loos of a parent severe difficulties in gaining parental or social approval or humiliating criticism from teachers or other adults
Cognitive Therapy
A therapy developed by Aaron Beck that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Cognitive triad
According to Beck, there are 3 important areas of life that are most influenced by the depressive cognitive schema; this refers to information about the self, about the world, and about the future
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Internal Locus of Control
people with this tend to respond to internal states and desires; they tend to see their successes as the result of their own efforts
External Locus of Control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate.
Social Cognitive Perspective
views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context.
Social Cognitive Theory
contemporary learning-based model that emphasizes the roles played by both cognitive factors and environmental or situational factors in determining behavior
Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura's idea that though our environment affects us, we also affect our environment
Watson
Called the father of behaviorism, he claimed that a psychologist's only interest should be in observable behavior.
Grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
One-word stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two word stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
visualization
The process of producing visual images in your mind
Kohler
A Gestalt psychologist who helped developed insight learning based on experiments with a chimp (Chip "Sulton") trying to get bananas, and also came up with the theory of isomorphism
isomorphism
A constraining process that forces one organization to resemble others that face the same set of environmental conditions. (Kohler)
Trial and Error
problem-solving strategy; best if there are limited choices; takes time to try all approaches; try one approach, fail; and another until you succeed; guarantees a solution
Insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
Factor Analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
Charles Spearman
An english psychologist, known for his work in statistics, as a pioneer of factor analysis and for Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. He also did seminal work on models for human intelligence, including his theory that disparate cognitive test scores reflect a single general factor and coining the term g factor. Most importantly if you do good on one part of the test you will most likely do well on the other parts.
Howard Gardner
A psychologist who disagreed with Spearman and devised devised theory of multiple intelligences: logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic, studied savants.
Savant
A person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability.
Visual/Spatial Intelligence
ability to visualize objects and spatial dimensions and create mental images
Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence
the ability to use words and language both written and spoken
Logical/Mathematical Intelligence
The ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. Most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking
Kinesthetic Intelligence
The ability to use one's mind to control one's bodily movements. This challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activity are unrelated.
Musical Intelligence
the ability to perceive, produce, and appreciate pitch and rhythm, and our appreciation of the forms of musical expressiveness
Interpersonal intelligence
The ability to apprehend the feelings and intentions of others.
Intrapersonal intelligence
The ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations.
Natural intelligence
As opposed to 'symbolic AI',is goal-directed, autonomous and ordered problem solving within a complex system, without the need for explicit representation, planning and search.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg's theory, which identifies three broad, interacting intelligences - analytical, creative, and practical - that must be balanced to achieve success according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community
Sternberg
Psychologist who developed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (drew from the theories of Spearman and Thurstone); said that the underlying cognitive process is broken into metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components
Analytical intelligence
According to Sternberg, the ability measured by most IQ tests; includes the ability to analyze problems and find correct answers. (book smart)
Practical intelligence
Sternberg- intelligence that is learned primarily by observing others and modeling their behavior
Creative intelligence
According to Sternberg, the form of intelligence that helps people see new relationships among concepts; involves insight and creativity.
Emotional Intelligence
The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion. Might be morr important than IQ. (EQ)
Glucose
Along with having neuron's fire faster and increased integration, higher performing brains usually use LESS glucose than average brains.
Alfred Binet
French Psychologist who published the first measure of intelligence in 1905. The purpose of his intelligence test was to correctly place students on academic tracks in the French school system.
Mental age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
Crystallized Intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
Fluid Intelligence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
IQ
intelligence quotient; created by Lewis Terman based off of Binet's concept of mental age; numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test; average score is 100; MA/CA X 100 = IQ
Lewis Terman
revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
Aptitude
capacity for learning; natural ability
Achievement
something done successfully; something gained by working or trying hard
Achievement Test
a test designed to assess what a person has learned
Aptitude Test
a test designed to predict a person's future performance
Standardized
administered to large groups of people under uniform conditions to establish norms
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Validity
the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Bell Curve
the plot of frequencies obtained for many psychological tests; most people's scores are in the middle range, and the decline in frequencies is similar whether scores get higher or lower than the mean.
Flynn Effect
A worldwide increase in IQ scores over the last several decades, at a rate of about 3 points per decade, makes it necessary to renorm tests
Content Validity
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
Predictive Validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
Test Bias
An undesirable characteristic of tests in which item content discriminates against certain students on the basis of socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, or gender.
Discrimination
the cognitive process whereby two or more stimuli are distinguished
Split Halves
A method of showing a test's reliability; involves dividing the test into halves
Intrinsic Motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic Motivation
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment.
Recall
the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort)
Recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
Encoding
the processing of information into the memory system
Storage
The process by which information is maintained over a period of time
Retrieval
third stage of the memory process; in it stored memories are brought into consciousness
Primacy Effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes first in a sequence.
Recency Effect
The tendency to show greater memory for information that comes last in a sequence.
Serial Positioning Effect
information at the beginning and at the end of a list is remembered better than material in the middle
Ebbinghaus
The Psychologist who created the "forgetting curve"- much of what we learn we may quickly forget, course of forgetting is initially rapid then levels off with time; learned lists of nonsense syllabus and measured how much he retained when relearning each lists
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
A forgetting curve that determines that we lose about 2/3 of information in first hour of learning; though the rate of forgetting levels off after a few days
Visual Encoding
the encoding of picture images
Acoustic Encoding
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words.
Semantic Encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
Mood Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
State Dependent Memory
The theory that information learned in a particular state of mind (e.g., depressed, happy, somber) is more easily recalled when in that same state of mind.
Flashbulb Memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence, 9/11 , JFK shooting
Elizabeth Loftus
Her research on memory construction and the misinformation effect created doubts about the accuracy of eye-witness testimony
Constructed Memory
suddenly recovered, perhaps after being repressed; sometimes true, but often very inaccurate, and leading questions often change the nature of the memory
Retroactive Interference
Situation in which information learned more recently hinders the recall of information learned previously
Proactive Interference
situation in which previously learned information hinders the recall of information learned more recently
Long Term Potentiation
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory, more firing better memory and better learning.
Narcissistic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by exaggerated ideas of self-importance and achievements; preoccupation with fantasies of success; arrogance
Dissociative Disorders
disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings
Anxiety
a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune
Abnormal Psychology
The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.
interns syndrome
a tendency to diagnose one's self while studying any particular disorder
DSM-IV-TR
Abbrevation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; the book published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders
Neurotic disorders
mental disorders in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does eperience subjective distress; a category dropped from DSM-III
neologisms
Made-up words that typically have only meaning to the individual who uses them. Typical of disorganized schizophrenic person
Psychotic Disorders
psychological disorders of thought and perception, characterized by inability to distinguish between real and imagined perceptions.
eclectic
selecting what seems best of various styles or ideas
David Rosenhan
A social psychologist that did a study in which healthy patients were admitted to psychiatric hospitals and diagnoses with schizophrenia; showed that once you are diagnosed with a disorder, the label, even when behavior indicates otherwise, is hard to overcome in a mental health setting
Rosenhan Study
study in which healthy individuals were admitted into mental hospitals after saying they were hearing voices. Once in, they acted normally and still were not labeled as impostors.
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by chronic free-floating anxiety and such symptoms as tension or sweating or trembling of light-headedness or irritability etc that has lasted for more than six months
panic disorder
an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
obsessive-compulsive disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsession) and/ or actions (compulsions).
posttraumatic stress disorder
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
agoraphobia
a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
compulsions
repetitive behaviors or mental acts performed to reduce or prevent stress
obsessions
repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress
Somatoform Disorders
class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
hypochondriasis
A somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses.
conversion disorders
Somatoform disorders in which a dramatic specific disability has no physical cause but instead seems related to psychological problems
psychogenic amnesia
this is when a person cannot remember things and no physiological basis for the disruption in memory can be identified
fugue
dissociative disorder in which a person forgets who who they are and leaves home to creates a new life
dissociative identity disorder
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.(DID)
Retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him
Anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg, see in a boxer who suffers a severe blow to the head and loses memory for events after the blow
Major depression
disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
dysthymic disorder
a mood disorder involving a pattern of comparatively mild depression that lasts for at least two years
seasonal affective disorder
Controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during winter months and improved mood during spring. Can be treated using phototherapy, using bright light and high levels of negative ions.
Affective Disorders
Conditions is which feelings of sadness or elation are excessive, and not realistic, given the person's life conditions.
mania
An intense or extreme enthusiasm or excitement.
Personality Disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Antisocial personality
personality who lacks a conscience, is emotionally shallow, impulsive, and selfish, and tends to manipulate others
Histrionic personality disorder
a personality disorder characterized by excessive emotionality and preoccupation with being the center of attention; emotional shallowness; overly dramatic behavior
Dependent personality disorder
personality disorder in which the person is unable to make choices and decisions independently and cannot tolerate being alone
Paranoid personality disorder
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
personality disorder defined by a pervasive pattern of orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. workaholics, intolerant of emotional behavior of other people.
Schizophrenia
group of disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Positive Symptom
A symptom of schizophrenia, including thought disorder, delusions, and hallucinations
Delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
delusions of grandeur
A false belief that one is a famous person or a powerful or important person who has some great knowledge, ability, or authority. Schizophrenia.
delusions of prosecution
belief that somebody is out to get you
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Inappropriate effect
Display of emotions that are unsuited to the situation; a symptom of schizophrenia.
Negative Symptom
symptom that reflects insufficient functioning, functions that have been lost (ex: social withdrawal, slowness of thought/speech)
Flat effect
Abnormality of mood and affect., lack of emotional response; no expression of feeling; voice monotonous and face immobile
Catatonia
a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods
waxy flexibility
feature of catatonic schizophrenia in which people rigidly maintain the body position or posture in which they are placed by others
Paranoid Schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by hallucinations and delusions of persecution or grandeur (or both), and sometimes irrational jealousy.
Disorganized Schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect. Usually found in Homeless people.
clang associations
psychotic speech in which words are rhymed and spoken for their appealing sound, found mainly in a disorganized schizophrenic person
Catatonic Schizophrenia:
a condition marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity(stupor) to random motor activity, also parrot behavior
Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
diagnosis made when a person experiences schizophrenic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations, but does not meet criteria for paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic schizophrenia
Paraphilias
Sexual disorders in which sexual arousal occurs almost exclusively in the context of inappropriate objects or individuals.
zoophilia
Using sexual contact with animals as the primary means of achieving sexual gratification
fetishism
a paraphilia in which a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement
voyeur
Peeping Tom; person who derives sexual gratification from observing the sexual acts of others
masochist
one who enjoys his or her own pain and suffering
sadist
someone who obtains pleasure from inflicting pain or others
Anorexia Nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Substance Abuses
misuse of drugs that damages an individual's health and ability to function
Purging
The use of vomiting, laxatives, excessive exercise, restrictive dieting, enemas, diuretics, or diet pills to compensate for food that has been eaten and that the person fears will produce weight gain
Binging
a period or bout, usually brief, of excessive indulgence, as in eating, drinking alcoholic beverages;bender, blast, jag, tear, bust, toot; orgy
ADHD
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Impulsiveness
difficulty waiting turn, organizing, following throught, not due to clear cognitive impairment
Hyperactivity
a condition characterized by excessive restlessness and movement
Inattention
non-responsiveness to task demands
Endorphins
chemical inhibiting the transmission of pain, often experienced during exercise, i.e. "runner's high"; discovered in 1970s when trying to find out how opiates were (morphine, heroin);
Neurons
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information in electrical and chemical forms. Are the fundamental building blocks of the nervous system. COMPOSED OF THE CELL BODY(soma), AXON, AXON Hillock, and Dendrite
Dendrites
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that RECIEVE messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Soma
the cell body of the neuron responsible for maintaining the life of the cell
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages ARE GIVEN to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Axon Hillock
The conical region of a neuron's axon where it joins the cell body; typically the region where nerve signals is generated.
Neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
resting potential
An electrical potential established across the plasma membrane of all cells by the Na+/K+ ATPase and the K+ leak channels. IN most cells, the resting membrane potential is approximately -70 mV with respect to the outside of the cell.
action potential
A neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane
threshold potential
The minimum potential shift at which an action potential is initiated (around -50mV usually).
axon terminal
terminal button, synaptic knob; the structure at the end of an excellent terminal branch; houses the synaptic vesicles and neurotransmitters
reuptake
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane
Acetylcholine
the neurotransmitter substance that is released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions, enabling learning and memory and most prominately triggers muscle contraction, lack of it is linked to Alzheimer's
Dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
Agonists
chemical substances that mimic or enhance the effects of a neurotransmitter on the receptor sites of the next cell, increasing or decreasing the activity of that cell
Antagonists
chemical substances that block or reduce a cell's response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters
Reuptake Inhibitors
a drug that blocks the recycling of the neurotransmitter, thus making more of the neurotransmitter available at the synapse. This has the effect of leaving the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft for a longer period of time, and makes the neurotransmitter have a greater effect. Example: Cocaine for Dopamine
psychoactive drugs
Chemical substances that influence the brain, altering consciousness and producing psychological changes. These drugs usually work via the neurotransmitters. Cross the blood brain barrier
blood brain barrier
Blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out
tolerance
the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect
withdrawal symptoms
unpleasant physical or psychological effects following discontinued use of a drug, can include shakes or tremors, vomiting, blood pressure/heart rate changes or death
Stimulants
drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions.
Depressants
drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions.
Hallucinogens
Psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, PCP, METH, or Heroin that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
reverse tolerance
a drug user's experiencing the desired effects from lesser amounts of the same drug(usually Hallucinogens)
Afferent Neurons
Neurons that transmit messages from sense organs to the central nervous system. Also called sensory neurons
Efferent Neurons
Nerves that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands. Also called motor neurons.
Interneurons
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate( and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
Peripheral Nervous System
The section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord. Composed of the Somatic Nervous System (SNS) and the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Central Nervous Systems
Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
Somatic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscles. (Volantary )
Parasympathetic division
the part of the autonomic nervous system that monitors the routine operations of the internal organs and returns the body to calmer functioning after arousal by the sympathetic division
Sympathetic division
a branch of the autonomic nervous system and prepares the body for quick action in emergencies; fight or flight; busiest when frightened, angry, or aroused; increases heart rate, increases breathing rate, enlarges pupils, stops digestion; connects to all internal organs; sudden reaction
fight or flight response
a physical reaction triggered by the sympathetic nervous system preparing the body to fight or run from a threatening situation
Glial cells
Greek for glue; forms myelin sheath; holds neuron in place; provides nourishment and removes waste; prevents harmful substances from entering bloodstream; may play important role in memory and learning; affects brain's response to new experiences, support and protect and an regenerate new neurons.
Brain Plasticity
the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions(Reroutes dendrites to avoid damaged areas. Declines as hemispheres of the cerebral cortex lateralize.
Phineas Gage
Vermont railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury that changed his personality and behavior; his accident gave information on the brain and which parts are involved with emotional reasoning
lesion
any destruction or damage to brain tissue
Electroencephalogram
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
frontal lobotomy
an operation which involved sectioning or removing portions of the frontal lobes in an attempt to treat cases of bipolar mood disorder or chronic pain, later shown to be largely ineffective as a therapeutic procedure
Computerized Axial Tomography
a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis (CAT)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain. (MRI)
alpha waves
the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
delta waves
the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep.
Positron Emission Tomography
technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, greater accuracy than SPECT but is used less often because of cost and limited availability of the radioisotopes
fMRI
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, A technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; these scans show brain function. Basically a combination of PET and MRI
Medulla Oblongata
contains centers that control several visceral functions, including breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
Hindbrain
division which includes the cerebellum, Pons, and medulla; responsible for involuntary processes: blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate, breathing, sleep cycles
Pons
part of the brain involved in sleep regulation (dreams) also connects a cerebellum to the cerebral cortex; sleep and wake cycles and involved in facial expressions.
Cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; its functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance
Midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe, also includes most importantly the reticular formation.
Reticular Formation
a network of cells in the brainstem that filters sensory information and is involved in arousal and alertness. If it were cut off you would fall in a coma FOREVER, but if it were stimulated you would wake up and not be tired.
Forebrain
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Limbic System
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying BELOW the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Hippocampus
a complex neural structure located in the limbic system (shaped like a sea horse) consisting of gray matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle that helps process explicit memories for storage
Amygdala
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Cerebral Cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected unmyelinated neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information processing center, lots of fissures, is WHAT makes us human. Divides into the left and right hemispheres.
neural networks
interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
fissures
deep grooves on cortical surface of the cerebral hemisphere
Contralateral control
The typical pattern in vertebrates in which movements of the right side of the body are controlled by the left hemisphere, while movements of the left side are controlled by the right hemisphere.
LEFT hemisphere
the cerebral hemisphere to the left of the corpus callosum that controls the right half of the body, hemisphere of brain that specializes in speaking, calculating, logic, language processing (concrete)
RIGHT hemisphere
the cerebral hemisphere to the right of the corpus callosum that controls the left half of the body, hemisphere of brain that specializes in visual-spatial processing and quick thinking (abstract)
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them (Again it is bigger in Girls than in Guys, important in Gender Development). Loss of this will lead to split brain patients
split brain patients
individuals who have had the corpus callosum surgically severed, usually as a treatment for severe epilepsy
association areas
areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking
Broca's Area
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Motor Cortex
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements. The top of the motor cortex controls the bottom of our body and the bottom of the cortex controls the top of our body.
Parietal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Sensory Cortex
Located in the front of the parietal lobe (directly behind the sensory cortex in the frontal lobe), this structure is responsible for us feeling touch sensations from our body. Every time you feel a type of touch sensations (both pleasurable and pain) the information is sent up by sensory neurons to the thalamus and sent to the sensory cortex so we can feel it. Strangly the top part of it controls the bottom half of the body and the bottom half controls the top half of our body
Broca's Aphasia
An aphasia associated with damage to the Broca's area of the brain, demonstrated by the impairment in producing understandable speech.
Occipital Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
primary visual cortex
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives information directly from the visual system; located in the occipital lobe
Wernicke's Area
controls language reception - a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
Temporal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
pituitary gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
sex hormones
hormone produced in the adrenal cortex that targets the gonads, skin, muscles, and bones to stimulate reproductive organs and bring about sex characteristics
melatonin
hormone produced in the pineal gland that targets the brain to control circadian rhythms and circannual rhythms, and may be involved in maturation of sex organs
androgens
Support sperm formation; development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics
ovaries
The female gonads, paired almond-sized organs located in the pelvic cavity, and produce two steroid hormone groups the estrogns and pregesterone. The endocrine and exocrine functions do not begin until the onset of puberty.
progesterone
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and the regulation of reproduction
estrogen
a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
Sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
Perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
sensory adaptation
reduced responsiveness caused by prolonged stimulation
cornea
transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye
pupil
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
iris
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
lens
the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina
accommodation
the visual process by which lenses become rounded for viewing nearby objects and flatter for viewing remote objects
retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
cones
retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
rods
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
fovea
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
bipolar cells
second layer of neurons in the retina that transmit impulses from rods and cones to ganglion cells
ganglion cells
the specialized cells which lie behind the bipolar cells whose axons form the optic nerve which takes the information to the brain
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
feature detectors
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.
Trichromatic theory
Visual theory, stated by Young and Helmholtz that all colors can be made by mixing the three basic colors: red, green, and blue; a.k.a the Young-Helmholtz theory.
afterimage
an image (usually a negative image) that persists after stimulation has ceased
Opponent-Process Theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
difference threshold
the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference.
Weber's Law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount) 10 % for weight , 5% hearing and 8 % vision
Signal Detection Theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
false positive
error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory
false negative
Not perceiving a stimulus that is present
Top-Down Processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
perceptual set
a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Bottom-Up Processing
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.
figure-ground relationship
A Gestalt principle of perceptual organization that states that we automatically separate the elements of a perception into the feature that clearly stands out and its less distinct background.
Proximity
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) objects or events that are near to one another (in space or time) are perceived as belonging together as a unit
Similarity
a Getalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit
Continuity
a Gestalt psychology principle which states that the observer tends to see a line or shap as continuing in a particular direction rather than making a turn
Closure
a Gestalt principle of organization holding that there is an innate tendency to perceive incomplete objects as complete and to close or fill gaps and to perceive asymmetric stimuli as symmetric
Size Constancy
the tendency to perceive the vertical size of a familiar object despite differences in their distance (and consequent differences in the size of the pattern projected on the retina of the eye)
Shape Constancy
the tendency to perceive the shape of a rigid object as constant despite differences in the viewing angle (and consequent differences in the shape of the pattern projected on the retina of the eye)
Brightness Constancy
the tendency for a visual object to be perceived as having the same brightness under widely different conditions of illumination
Visual Constancy
our tendency to perceive objects as keeping their size, shape, and color even though the image that strikes our retina changes from moment to moment.
E.J. Gibson
Psychologist famous(along with Richard WalK) for his VISUAL CLIFF EXPERIMENT: used to determine whether infants could perceive depth; infant placed on glass table to create appearance of a cliff, found that infant won't crawl across-it has depth perception
visual cliff experiment
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk placed infants of various ages on a fabric-covered runway that ran across the center of a clever device called a visual cliff. The visual cliff consists of a sheet of plexiglas that covers a cloth with a high-contrast checkerboard pattern. On one side the cloth is placed immediately beneath the plexiglas, and on the other, it is dropped about 4 feet below. Since the plexiglas alone would easily support the infant, this is a visual cliff rather than an actual cliff. In the Gibson and Walk study, the majority of infants who had begun to crawl refused to venture onto the seemingly unsupported surface, even when their mothers beckoned encouragingly from the other side.
monocular cues
depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
Interposition
monocular visual cue in which two objects are in the same line of vision and one patially conceals the other, indicating that the first object concealed is further away
Texture Gradient
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; a gradual change from a coarse distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed
Relative Size
The monocular cue that states that if an object seems larger, it is probably closer, and if an object is smaller, it is probably distant.
Linear perspective
a monocular cue for perceiving depth; the more parallel lines converge, the greater their perceived distance
Retinal Disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object.
Convergence
a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object, the more of this the closer the object
psychopharmacology
the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior, also called drug therapy or chemotherapy
Thorazine
An antipsychotic drug(along with Haldol) thought to block receptor sites for dopamine, making it effective in treating the delusional thinking, hallucinations and agitation commonly associated with schizophrenia. May lead to tardive dyskinesia.
tardive dyskinesia
involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs(Haldol, Thorazine) that target D2 dopamine receptors, kinda like Parkinson's
tricyclic antidepressants
Drugs used for treating depression, as well as in chronic pain management and in the treatment of ADHD, Examples: (Adapin or Elavil), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (Nardil or Marplan) and serotonin reuptake inhibitors drugs (Prozac)
Prozac
An antidepressant drug that blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin fron synapses, a selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor commonly prescribed as an antidepressant
Lithium
a metal that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders
Valium
A Drug that can be used(along with Xanax) post delivery after a HARD labor or in very early stages, had anesthesia effect and decreases anxiety
electroconvulsive therapy
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient, Sometimes works (Dont Know WHY) Most likely because of increased blood flow(Maybe)
psychosurgery
surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
prefrontal lobotomy
a surgical procedure in which the connections between the prefrontal lobes and the rest of the brain are cut as a treatment for mental illness(ONLY good if YOU LOVE BEING A VEGGIE)
IQ
intelligence quotient; created by Lewis Terman based off of Binet's concept of mental age; numerical value given to intelligence that is determined from the scores on an intelligence test; average score is 100; MA/CA X 100 = IQ
Hydrocephaly
Enlargement of the cranium caused by abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricles of the cerebral system, tends to cause bulging eyes and most prominently mental retardation.
Rorschach inkblot test
The most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Hermann Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
Group tests
intelligence tests administered by one examiner to many people at one time
Mental Age
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
Chronological Age
the actual age of the child taking the intelligence test
Binet
French psychologist who wanted to identify French schoolchildren needing special attention; devised 'mental age'
Lewis Terman
Standford Professor who revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children; tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
Metacognitive skills
The student's skills where he is aware of whether or not his mind is engaged when he is reading, whether or not he understands what is being read, and what further strategies he needs to employ to gain meaning from the page.
Experiential intelligence
A component of Sternberg's Triarchic theory; AKA creative intelligence; refers to the ability to adjust to new tasks, use new concepts, combine information in novel ways, respond effectively in new situations, gain insight and adapt creatively.
Robert Sternberg
Proposed the triarchic theory that divides intelligence into three types: compnential, experiential, and contextual
triarchic theory
Robert Sternberg's theory of intelligence that suggests that there are three aspects to intelligence: componential (e.g., performance on tests), experiential (creativity) and contextual (street smarts/business sense).
Speed of processing
the speed at which elementary information-processing tasks (such as reaction-time tests) can be carried out. This speed improves as children grow older.
familial retardation
Is usually mild and lacks an obvious genetic or environmental cause; it results from a complex interaction between heredity and environment
mere-exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
LaPiere
Psychologist who found that behavior conflicts with cognition.1934, conducted an early study that illustrated the difference between attitudes and behaviors.A classic study of attitude-behavior consistency: This man toured the United States in 1934 with a Chinese couple, stopping at hotels and restaurants along the way. They were refused service at only one establishment. However, 92% of the institutions later said in a letter that they would refuse to accept Chinese people as guests. Hotel employees may have biases based on secondhand information. When they see them up close, their biases go away. Social norm: you don't want to look bad in front of a caucasian person.
Cognitive Dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
norms of reciprocity
people's tendency to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return
Piaget
Swiss psychologist who says children's cognitive development depends on their ability to organize, classify, and to adapt to their environments
Object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age (Piaget)
Weschler
He published the first high-quality IQ test designed for adults
-Weschler-Adult Intelligence Scale
-made test less dependent on verbal ability
-formalized the computation of separate scores for verbal IQ, performance( nonverbal), and full scale IQ
-new scoring scheme based on normal distribution
Flynn effect
Term used to describe the steady and consistent rise in IQ test performance over time (approximately 3 points per decade) . Thought to be caused mostly by the environment. Because of this, IQ tests are periodically "renormed"
crystallized intelligence
One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Charles Spearman
an english psychologist, known for his work in statistics,he argued that intelligence can be expressed by a single factor. He used factor analysis, a statistical technique that takes multiple items and meshes them into one number, to show that intelligence can be a single number he simply called g (generalized intelligence)
Spearman's g.
a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
Howard Gardner
Harvard researcher that has identified at least eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, musical, spatial (visual), interpersonal (the ability to understand others), intrapersonal (the ability to understand oneself), and naturalist (the ability to recognize fine distinctions and patterns in the natural world).
Linguistic intelligence
The sensitivity to words and their connotations. The ability to influence others and manipulate.
Logical-mathematical intelligence
The ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. Most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking
Musical intelligence
The ability to read, understand, and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. Auditory functions are required for a person to develop this intelligence for pitch and tone, but it is not needed for the knowledge of rhythm
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
control of one's bodily motions and capacity to handle objects skillfully
Spatial intelligence
The ability to use images that represent spatial relations (for example, imagining whether a new sofa will fit in your living room)
Interpersonal intelligence
The ability to apprehend the feelings and intentions of others.
Intrapersonal intelligence
The ability to understand one's own feelings and motivations.
nature intelligence
measured by presentation of specific tasks that measure general and specific abilities
sexual intelligence
involves self-understanding, interpersonal sexual skills, scientific knowledge, and consideration of the cultural context of sexuality.
experiential intelligence
Component of Sternberg's Triarchic theory; AKA creative intelligence; refers to the ability to adjust to new tasks, use new concepts, combine information in novel ways, respond effectively in new situations, gain insight and adapt creatively.
analytical intelligence
According to Sternberg, the ability measured by most IQ tests; includes the ability to analyze problems and find correct answers. (book smart)
practical intelligence
according to Sternberg, the ability to cope with the environment; sometimes called "street smarts"
Daniel Goleman
Thought of Emotional Intelligence : able to manage own emotions, is capable of self-motivation and self direction, recognizes emotions in others, and is able to handle various types of relationships.
Emotional intelligence
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions, involves Gardner's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence and also known as EQ. (David Goleman). Studies actually show that having a higher EQ IS BETTER THAN HAVING A HIGHER Iq (at least in terms of money)
Reliability
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
test-retest
method examines how well people's scores from 2 different testing occasions are correlated
split halves
A method of showing a test's reliability; involves dividing the test into halves
Spearman-Brown formula
In psychometrics, a methematical formula that predicts the degree to which the reliability of a test can be improved by adding more items. The longer the test the more reliable it is .
predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
face /content validity,
Form of validity where a researcher determines if the measure appears to be measuring the appropriate construct by examining the specific questions.
aptitude tests
Tests that measure the general ability or capacity to learn or acquire a new skill.
achievement tests
Tests that gauge a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects. (AP, ACT, SAT)
Speed tests
Timed test; difficulty is more in how quickly questions can be answered than in the content.
Power tests
Tests where people are given significant amounts of time to finish the work, but the questions become increasingly more difficult.
Individual tests
Tests administered to a single person at a time; interaction between the examiner and examinee is great. (Rorschach inkblot test)
Hermann Rorschach
A psychoanalyst psychologist who developed one of the first projective tests, the Inkblot test which consists of 10 standardized inkblots where the subject tells a story, the observer then derives aspects of the personality from the subject's commentary
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score(Spearman)
microcephaly
Condition in which the head is unusually small as a result of defective brain development( 2 Standard Deviations below the Mean) premature ossification of the skull
Cretinism
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone during growth years, characterized by a low metabolic rate, retarded growth and sexual development, and possible mental retardation. Adult years: weight gain, loss of hair, and myxedema.
Down Syndrome
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup (21)
organic retardation
Mental retardation because of some identifiable biological cause associated with hereditary factors, diseases, or injuries. Contrast with cultural-familial retardation.
Eugenics
the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
PKU
A human metabolic disease caused by a mutation in a gene coding for a phenylalanine processing enzyme (phenylalanine hydroxylase), which leads to accumulation of phenylalanine and mental retardation if not treated; inherited as an autosomal recessive phenotype.
Savant
A person of low intelligence who has an extraordinary ability
savant syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
Zimbardo
Performed prison simulation and used concept of deindividuation to explain results, When one takes on a role, they will often change their behavior in order to fit the perceived set of expectations for that role.
External cause
a cause of behavior that is assumed to lie outside a person
Internal cause
a cause of behavior that is assumed to lie within a person- for instance, a need, preference, or personality trait.
Solomon Asch
Performed famous study on conformity in which people gave an obviously incorrect answer just to conform to the group - length of line study.howed the subjects three vertical lines of varying sizes and asked them to indicate which one was the same length as a different target line.
William Wundt
father of psychology, first psychology research lab in Leipzig, Germany; research on workings of senses; applied scientific method to psychology; used Introspection
Positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive
Reminiscence bump
the enhanced memory of people over 40yrs old for events from adolescence and early adulthood, compared to other periods of their lives
Schachter
Studied the relationship between anxiety and the need for affiliation; The greater the anxiety the greater desire to affiliate ,Developed "Two-Factor" theory of emotion; experiments on spillover effect
Spillover effect
when one emotion continues from one situation to another; more happy about getting job after running as opposed to just waking up
Deindividuation
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
group prejudice
Prejudice held out of conformity to group views
personal prejudice
Prejudicial attitudes held toward persons who are perceived as a direct threat to one's own interests
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
Janis
Psychologist who developed the concept of groupthink to explain how group decision making can sometimes go awry Example: Bay of Pigs.
focus group
a small group of people who meet under the direction of a discussion leader to communicate their opinions about an organization, its products, or other given issues.
personal identification
the target person imitates the agents behavior or adopts the same attitudes to please the agents and the be like the agent
reference group
any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior
Stanford Prison study
A social psychological study conducted at Stanford University by Philip Zimbardo. Its aim was to study the impact of roles on behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to play the role of either prisoner or guard. This study was terminated early because of the role-induced punitive behavior on the part of the "guards."
The Lucifer Effect
Created by Philip Zimbardo. Demonstrated that ordinary people could behave in "evil" ways under the right circumstances.
Milgram experiment
A series of psychological experiments which measured the willingness of study participants to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts that conflicted with their personal conscience.(1961)
Milgram
studied obedience by asking subjects to administer electroshock; also proposed stimulus-overload theory to explain differences between city and country dwellers
stimulus overload
a reaction to the plethora of noises, sounds, sights, and other stimuli that bombard the senses simultaneously
Scapegoating
blaming an innocent person or a group for one's own troubles
theory of cognitive dissonance
theory based on the premise that a state of tension is created when beliefs or behaviors conflict with one another; people are motivated to reduce this inconsistency (or dissonance) and thus eliminate unpleasant tension
superordinate goal
a shared goal that necessitates cooperative effort; a goal that overrides people's differences from one another
fundamental attribution
The tendency to attribute other people's behavior primarily to internal factors such as personality, attitudes, and free will is known as the ( ) error.
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
Donnerstein
Psychologist who showed men shown neutral, erotic, or rape film. Men shown the rape film administered greater shocks to females who made mistakes in nonsense tasks.
indoctrination
teaching someone to accept an idea or principle without question
Aggression
violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked
Attribution theory
the theory that we tend to give a casual explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
frustration-aggression hypothesis
argues aggression comes from built up frustration (or any stress) triggered by an environmental aggression cue
Cialdini
Developed the 6 weapons of influence
1. reciprocity
2. commitment & consistency
3. social proof
4. authority
5. liking
6. scarcity
door-in-the-face effect
The tendency of a person who has refused a major request to subsequently be more likely to comply with a minor request.
the halo effect
refers to the overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action.
The sleeper effect
A psychological phenomenon whereby a highly persuasive message, paired with a discounting cue, causes an individual to be more persuaded by the message over time.
Intensification
Give the impression of having stronger feelings than one really has.
Credibility Factor
the factor applied in ratemaking to adjust for the predictive value of loss data and used to minimize the variations in the rates that result from purely chance variations in losses
low-ball technique
A tactic for getting people to agree to something. People who agree to an initial request will often still comply when the requester ups the ante. People who receive only the costly request are less likely to comply with it.
foot-in-the-door effect
technique to ensure conformity; strategy that states once a person grants a small request, they are more likely to comply with a larger one; Example: once a sales pitch begins the odds of the sale increase because the individual is listening to the request
gain-loss theory
people act in order to obtain gain and avoid loss; people feel MOST favorably toward situations that start out negatively but end positively (even when compared to completely positive situations)
reciprocity
the principle that people tend to like others who like them back
complementary need theory
we're attracted to others for what they can provide for us
- Exchange of skills between you and another person
- Working together is better than being alone
- How do you balance each other out?
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
social comparison theory
Theory that we seek to evaluate our beliefs, attitudes, and abilities by comparing our reactions with others'
Projection
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
role
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
Secure attachment
a relationship in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiver
Ambivalent attachment
Pattern in which an infant becomes anxious before the primary caregiver leaves, is extremely upset during his or her absence, and both seeks and resists contact on his or her return.
Avoidant attachment
infants who seem unresponsive to the parent when they are present, are usually not distressed when she leaves, and avoid the parent when they return
norming
the stage of group development during which the group solidifies its rules for behavior, especially those that relate to how conflict will be managed
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
self-handicapping
the strategy whereby people create obstacles and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid blaming themselves
personal space
Usually 18 inches to 4 feet, the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
Need for affiliation
desire to associate with others, to be part of a group, to form close and intimate relationships
Proxemics
the study of spatial distances between individuals in different cultures and situations
socialization
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
attitudes
Patterns of feelings and beliefs about other people, ideas, or objects that are based on a person's past experiences, shape his or her future behavior, and are evaluative in nature.
stereotypes
Attributions that cover up individual differences and ascribe certain characteristics to an entire group of people
cognitive dissonance
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
role modeling
The use of self as a role model often overlooked as an instructional method, whereby the learner acquires new behaviors and social roles by identification with the role model.
jigsaw classrooms
educational approach designed to minimize prejudice by requiring all children to make independent contributions to a shared project
ascribed roles
Roles that people are born into or that are thrust on them without any effort or desire on their own particular
Desensitization
a process by which viewers of media violence develop callousness or emotional neutrality in the face of a real-life act of violence
role diffusion
Erikson's term for lack of clarity in one's life roles (due to failure to develop ego identity).
role conflict
the situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by the same person
Alcohol
Is a depressant that affects all areas of your brain and impairs coordination; decreases your reaction time; disrupts your voluntary muscle control; and inteferes with your reasoning, decision making, and judgement
autonomy
immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence
self-disclosure
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own ethnic and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
Cohesiveness
The degree of attraction members have to each other and to the group's goal
social posturing
behavior that establishes the degree to which an individual belongs to a particular-often socially desired group. This can also reflect an individuals "staus" in a given social hierarchy
mannerisms
a gesture or way of speaking which is a characteristic of a person.
achieved roles
Roles that individuals assume after some effort or achievement.
Jane Elliot
A 3rd grade Iowa teacher who in response to assassination of MLK, she divided her class into blue eyes and brown eyes, brown eyes felt inferior to blue eyes, group favoritism, and racism
Overdisclosure
self-disclosure that excees what is appropriate for a relationship or social situation
Brainwashing
the most extreme form of attidude change, accompanied through peer pressure, physical suffering, threats, rewards for compliance, manipulating of guilt, intensive indoctrination, & other psychological means.
downward comparison
comparing yourself with those who are not as good as yourself although our performance or lives are not ideal... it could be worse
Upward comparison
Comparing yourself with people who do much better than you; can sometimes inspire us to do better and sometimes lower self esteem
Sociology
The scholarly discipline concerned with the systematic study of social organizations.
Social psychology
the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole
evolutionary attachment
Bowlby's theory of attachment as an innate process ensuring survival
evolutionary psychology
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
interpersonal attraction
The tendency of one person to evaluate another person (or a symbol or image of another person) in a positive way.
mutual exclusivity
a cognitive bias shown by young children, who typically avoid labeling anything at more than one level of generality
EX. refer to pet as a dog but not as an animal as well
mutual interdependence
The situation that exists when two or more groups need each other and must depend on each other to accomplish a goal that is important to each of them
culture
norms of reciprocity
people's tendency to think that when someone does something nice for them, they ought to do something nice in return
LaPiere
Psychologist who found that behavior conflicts with cognition.1934, conducted an early study that illustrated the difference between attitudes and behaviors.A classic study of attitude-behavior consistency: This man toured the United States in 1934 with a Chinese couple, stopping at hotels and restaurants along the way. They were refused service at only one establishment. However, 92% of the institutions later said in a letter that they would refuse to accept Chinese people as guests. Hotel employees may have biases based on secondhand information. When they see them up close, their biases go away. Social norm: you don't want to look bad in front of a caucasian person.
Piaget
Swiss psychologist who says children's cognitive development depends on their ability to organize, classify, and to adapt to their environments, also object permanence.
Object permanence
recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age (Piaget)
prejudice
an opinion or strong feeling formed without careful thought or regard to the facts
discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior(involving an action acting opun a prejudice) toward a group or its members
out-groups
groups other than those with which one identifies
in-group
a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty
out-group homogeneity
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar. Ex: view all michigan fans as stupid.
in-group bias
tendency to favor individuals within our group over those from outside our group. Ex: help Texas person on side of road but not if from michigan
contact theory
if members of two opposing groups are brought together in an emergency situation, group cooperation will reduce prejudicial thinking.
dispositional attribution
belief that one's behavior is due to long-lasting personality traits rather than the current environment.
situational attribution
belief that an individual's behavior is based on events in the environment rather than long-lasting personality characteristics.
collectivistic cultures
Collectivistic cultures socialize people to think of themselves in terms of group goals, values and identity rather than personal or individual goals, values, etc. e.g. Asian or tribal cultures
individualistic cultures
Cultures in which a person's identity focuses on themselves as an individual ( e.g. United State and Canada). Also called independent cultures. This is where the FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR happens more frequently when compared to collectivistic cultures.
false-consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors
Self-serving bias
tendency often in individualistic cultures to attribute our own successes to dispositional factors and our own failures to situational factors
Rosenthal
A Psychologist along with Jacobson famous for his research regarding the "experimenter effect", study on self-fulfilling prophecy with students expected to improve, social expectations influence how one treats and behaves toward those people, the way they are treated shape them into what is socially expected "Pygmalion in the Classroom"
experimenter effect
phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study (Also called Self Fulfilling Prophecy)
Pygmalion in the Classroom
Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development (1968)- found out that when teachers expected students to succeed, the students indeed tended to improve. Vice-versa.
self-fulfilling prophecy
a situation in which a researcher's expectations influence that person's own behavior, and thereby influence the participant's behavior
Instrumental aggression
Cognition-based and goal-directed aggression carried out with premeditated thought, to achieve specific aims(One of the 2 Types of Aggression)
Hostile aggression
Behavior intended to harm another, either physically or psychologically, and motivated by feelings of anger and hostility (One of the 2 Types of Aggression)
Albert Bandura
Behaviorist/modern theorist who challenges Skinner saying he ignored the most distinctive and important feature of human behavior. He agrees that personality is shaped through learning but that observational learning through models is influential. (Bobo doll)
Bobo doll experiment
-children watched the actions of adults towards a doll and when in the same situation imitated the actions of the adult whom they watched
-we choose to imitate people who we respect or like, people who are attractive or powerful, people of the same gender, people who are similar to us, people who's behavior leads to positive outcomes (Albert Bandura)
observational learning
change in behavior due to watching other people behave(Albert Bandura)
bystander intervention
a psychological phenomenon in which someone is less likely to intervene in an emergency situation when other people are present and able to help than when he or she is alone. Most Famous case is the Murder of Kitty Genovese
Kitty Genovese
In 1964 a young women was attacked outside her NY apartment late at night . Despite fighting and shouting for help. No one came to her rescue and she was murdered. At least 40 neighbors heard he screams for help but nobody came to her aid. No one even called the police. When interviewed later the neighbors stated they felt it was lovers quarrel or none of my business. They passed the buck so to speak. This process is called diffusion of responsibility. Also example of Bystander Effect and pluralistic ignorance
diffusion of responsibility
the tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
pluralistic ignorance
A type of misunderstanding that occurs when members of a group don't realize that the other members share their perception (often, their uncertainty about how to react to a situation). As a result, each member wrongly interprets the others' inaction as reflecting their better understanding of the situation.
Similarity
a Getalt principle of organization holding that (other things being equal) parts of a stimulus field that are similar to each other tend to be perceived as belonging together as a unit
Similarity
extent to which we have things in common with others, a predictor of attraction
compassionate love
The intimacy and affection we feel when we care deeply for a person but do not experience passion or arousal in the persons presence
Passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
social facilitation
improved performance of tasks in the presence of others; occurs with simple or well-learned tasks but not with tasks that are difficult or not yet mastered
social impairment
lowering of performance on a given task in the pressence of others - usually a task that is not well reshearsed
confederate
a person who joins with another in carrying out some plan (especially an unethical or illegal plan)
obedience studies
- Studies that focus on participants' willingness to do what another asks them to do.
- Milgram (1974) found that over 60 percent of participants obey experimenters' orders, even when the orders involve potentially hurting someone else.
Participants' compliance is decreased when they are in close contact with those people whom they are being ordered to harm.
- When the experimenter left in the middle of the experiment and was replaced by an assistant, obedience also decreased.
- When other people were present in the room and they objected to the orders, the percentage of participants who quit in the middle of the experiment skyrocketed.
- Milgram's research has been severely criticized on ethical grounds.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
Group polarization
tendency of group members to move to an extreme position after discussing an issue as a group
Concordance rate
the percentage of instances in which both members of a twin pair show a trait when it is present in one pair member, used to study the contribution of heredity to emotional and behavior disorders
Primary Punisher
A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock.
monism
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
John Garcia
Researched taste aversion. Showed that when rats ate a novel substance before being nauseated by a drug or radiation, they developed a conditioned taste aversion for the substance.
ethnocentrism
The tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
Hans Eysenck
Psychology theorists who suggested that personality could be reduced to two polar dimensions introversion-extraversion and emotional instability-stability (neuroticism).
introversion
a personality trait that signifies that one finds energy from internal sources rather than external ones
extraversion
The tendency to experience positive emotions and moods and to feel good about oneself and the rest of the world.
neuroticism
one of the three underlying dimensions of personality in Eysenck's model, referring to tendencies toward emotional instability, anxiety, and worry
Big-Five Model
Psychological view based on factor analytic studies suggesting the existance of 5 basic components of human personality; openess, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism, OCEAN
Judith Langlois
Psychologist that tested babies on their preference of attractive people compared to unattractive people, babies preferred attractive.
Karl Wernicke
German neurologist who discovered the part of the brain responsible for the comprehension of speech was ___.
Kenneth Clark
United States psychologist (born in Panama) whose research persuaded the Supreme Court that segregated schools were discriminatory , Used dolls to study children's attitude towards race. Their findings were used in the Brown vs. Board trial.
Stigmatization
Individuals who deviate from their ascribed categories and roles are excluded, humiliated, and ostracized.
Kurt Lewin
A German refugee who escaped Nazi oppression. He designed an experiment to investigate the effects of different leadership styles on group functions. He wanted to find out if people were more productive under 3 different styles 1. autocratic, 2. laizssez-faire, and 3. democratic. This is the study when he had children do activities under the 3 conditions. The democratic style proved to be the most productive as was expected
Leon Festinger
Kurt Lewin's student. Social psychologists who studie cognitive dissonance (tension when holding inconsistent ideas in mind). Had a case study of a housewife who thought she was getting alien messages.believed we change our attitudes so behavior is sensible and justified. Also found that the more difficult it is to join a group, the more that group is valued, so the pain of joining was worthwhile.
Little Albert
In which famous experiment did Watson condition a child to fear small white animals after pairing them with a loud bang? Showed Classical Conditioning.
Paul Ekman
Researcher who developed neuro-cultural theory which stated brain and culture effects emotions and the universality of the seven basic emotions
Robert Zajonc
Developed the mere exposure effect. It is possible to have preferences without interferences and to feel without knowing why.
Mere Exposure Effect
phenomenon in which repeated exposure to a stimulus makes us more likely to feel favorably toward it
Tolman
He believed learning happened regardless of reinforcement and normal learning produces a cognitive map of the environment, Studied a rat's tendency to learn the course of a maze over time. He came up with the idea of latent learning and cognitive maps.
Cognitive Maps
Psychological representations of locations that are created from people's individual ideas and impressions, mental representations that enable people to navigate from a starting point to an unseen destination (Tolman)
Latent Learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Conformity
acting according to certain accepted standards
ADHD
A psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Ritalin
Central nervous system stimulant (trade name Ritalin) used in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention deficit disorder in children
Enuresis
inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
Encopresis
involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
Passive euthanasia
The deliberate disconnection of life support equipment, or cessation of any life-sustaining medical procedure, permitting the natural death of the patient.
Erik Erikson
Neo-Freudian, humanistic; 8 psychosocial stages of development: theory shows how people evolve through the life span. Each stage is marked by a psychological crisis that involves confronting "Who am I?"
Psychosocial Theory
A theory of psychological development that proposes that cognitive, emotional, and social growth are the result of the interaction between social expectations at each life stage and the competencies that people bring to each life challenge. (Erikson)
Ageism
discrimination against middle-aged and elderly people
Lawrence Kohlberg
Developmental psychologist who contends that moral thinking progresses through a series of stages: Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional, by presenting boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions Most Famous is " Heinz"
Heinz
The case of this person was used by Kohlberg as a moral dilemma. He has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why
James Coleman
Who suggested four areas to reform through which colloar crime might be effected. These four areas consisted of Ethical, Enforcement, Structural, and Polical. Social Capital.
Elkind
who developed the theory of:
-adolescent egocentrism
-imaginary audience
-personal fable
adolescent egocentrism
A characteristic of adolescent thinking that sometimes leads to young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others and to believe, for example, that their thoughts, feelings and experiences are unique (Elkind)
imaginary audience
A cognitive distortion experienced by adolescents, in which they see themselves as always "on stage" with an audience watching (Elkind)
Personal fable
common belief among adolescents that their feelings and experiences cannot possibly be understood by others and that they are personally invulnerable to harm (Elkind)
status symbols
Signs that identify a status, such as uniforms or wedding rings (Elkind)
life-span psychology
the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire life span.
Stuttering
serious speech difficulty that occurs when a person speaks with sporadic repetition or prolonged sounds. Damage to Broca Area
Broca Area
controls language expression - an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Isolation
a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it
Kübler-Ross
Her theory proposes that the terminally ill pass through a squence of 5 stages: 1. denial, 2. anger/resentment, 3. bargaining with God, 4. depression, and 5. acceptance
Grief
Reaction to an unfortunate outcome; a deep distress caused by bereavement, a loss, or a perceived loss.
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Preconventional level
Stages 1 and 2 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children think about moral questions in terms of external authority; acts are wrong because they are punished or right because they are rewarded.
Thanatologist
Those who study dying & death --- EX: Kubler-Ross's stages of dying & Martocchio's manifestations of grief.
Martocchio
Maintains that there is no single correct way (nor timetable) by which a person progresses through the grief process
Social butterflies
someone who talks to a lot of people
Postconventional Level
Kohlberg's highest level of moral development, in which moral actions are judged on the basis of personal codes of ethics that are general and abstract and that may not agree with societal norms
Conventional Level
Stages 3 and 4 of Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning. Children see rules as necessary for maintaining social order; they internalize them to be considered virtuous and to win approval from authority figures.
Stagnation
a discontinuation of development and a desire to recapture the past
Cryonic suspension
Freezing deceased tisuues for revival in the future, or until a natural cure can be found.
Depression
the condition of feeling apathetic, hopeless, and withdrawn from others. When it is major it is an emotionally crippling depressed state linked to physical causes; it may be, at the extreme, a suicidal state.
Agitation
a violent stirring or movement; noisy confusion, excitement; a stirring up of public enthusiasm
Bereavement
state of sorrow over the death or departure of a loved one
behavior modification
changing one's choices or actions by manipulating the cues that trigger the actions, the actions themselves, or the consequences of the actions
Psychotherapy
an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
Autism
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
Gilligan
Did moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Different reasoning, not better or worse, also published "The Porcupine and the Moles"
Pica
compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as clay or ice; this condition is often a result of an iron deficiency
Gould
Studied people between the ages of 16-60, labeling the central theme for the adult years as transformation.
Levinson
Psychologist who did research on the supposed "mid-life crisis"; in general, 80% of any age group would describe themselves as "satisfied" or "very satisfied" with life. Theory base on organizing concept of individual life structure.
generativity
in Erikson's theory, a process of making a commitment beyond oneself ex:to family, work, or future generations
midlife transition
According to Levinson, a process whereby adults assess the past and formulate new goals for the future; taking stock of life
intimacy
in Erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood.
identity
one's sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and integrating various roles
psychopathology
The branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
initiative versus guilt.
In Erikson's theory, the psychological conflict of early childhood, which is resolved positively through play experiences that foster a healthy sense of initiative and through development of a superego, or conscience, that is not overly strict and guilt-ridden.
industry versus inferiority
The fourth of Erikson's eight psychosexual development crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
generativity versus stagnation
Erikson's seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences stagnation (a sense of inactivity or lifelessness)
integrity versus despair
Erickson's final, eighth stage, where the person asks himself or herself: "After seventy, eighty, or ninety years of life, do I have anything of interest and value to say to the next generation? Or not?"
Hyperactivity
A motor pattern involving abnormally energized physical activity, often characterized by quick movements and fast talking. In children, behavior characterized by fidgeting, restlessness, running about inappropriately, talking excessively, and feeling incapable of playing quietly.
echolalia
mechanical and meaningless repetition of the words of another person (as in schizophrenia, autism)
Schizophrenia
A group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions. Is an example of a disease that is mutlifactorial. Treatment of this disease with antipsychotics and dopamine may lead to Tardive Dyskinesia
Puberty
the stage of development at which individuals become physiologically capable of reproducing
Dyslexia
word blindness; learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to read
Climacteric
Physiological changes that occur during the transition period from fertility to infertility in both sexes
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Nature vs. nurture
the long-standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors.
Nature
a person's inherited traits, determined by genetics
Nurture
the properties acquired as a consequence of the way you were treated as a child
Twins
two children born at the same time to the same parents, The best way to study the Nature vs. Nurture Debate in Developmental Psychology
cross-sectional
In this study data is collected on people of different ages at the same time, it can show similarities and differences among age groups. However it cannot establish age effects, makes individual differences
longitudinal
describes research that measures a trait in a particular group of subjects over a long period of time
Chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
DNA
a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
Genes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
nucleotides
Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
zygote
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
Fraternal Twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
Identical twins
twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
embryo
an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
Lungs
two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration, last to develop fully as a fetus
teratogens
Agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. Can lead to FAS
FAS
fetal alcohol syndrome= caused by mothers who drink alcohol while being pregnant
Turner's syndrome
genetic sex linked disorder, XO No Barr Bodies, phenotypically female, short, neck webbing, leading cause of primary amenorrhea from ovarian dysgenesis
Klinefelter's syndrome
A chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome resulting in an XXy condition; affected individuals typically have reduced fertility
Down's syndrome
is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra 21st chromosome.. Often Down syndrome is associated with some impairment of cognitive ability and physical growth as well as facial appearance
Rooting Reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
Sucking Reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to make sucking motions when a finger or nipple if placed in the mouth
Grasping Reflex
Reflex that causes a newborn to grasp vigorously any object touching the palm or fingers or placed in the hand
Moro Reflex
infant startle response to sudden, intense noise or movement. When startled the newborn arches its back, throws back its head, and flings out its arms and legs.
Babinski Reflex
reflexive fanning out and curling of an infant's toes and inward twisting of its foot when the sole of the foot is stroked
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Primary Sexual Characteristics
Is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism
Secondary Sexual Characteristics
Characteristics that develop during puberty that are not directly associated with reproduction, such as pubic hair and growth spurts.
Menarche
Beginning of menstrual function, FIRST PERIOD
Alzheimer's Disease
an irreversible, progressive brain disorder, characterized by the deterioration of memory, language, and eventually, physical functioning, Causing apoptosis of the hippocampal and cortical neurons associated with neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaque
Parkinson's Disease
A motor disorder characterized by difficulty in initiating movements, slowness, and rigidity, masked facial expressions, muscle tremors, poor balance, and a shuffling gait.Also increases with the onset of old age, the symptoms of the disease result from the neurons in the midbrain nucleus called the substantia nigra which (normally release dopamine), and the buildup of protein aggregates containing a-synuclein
Tay- Sachs disease
A human genetic disease caused by a RECCESIVE allele for a dysfunctional enzyme (lysosomes) , leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain. Seizures, blindness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth. Very Rare
ALS
"Lou Gherig's Disease" - progressive neurological disease in which the motor neurons degenerate to the point of total loss of motor function. The intelligence, memory, and personality is unaffected. Stephen Hawking has this.
Beta Amyloid plaques
Structural change in the cerebral cortex associated with Alzheimer's Disease, in which dense deposits of a deteriorated protein called amyloid develop, surrounded by clumps of dead nerve and glial cells, also called senile plaques, they seem to trigger the death of surrounding neurons.
L-dopa
Parent molecule for dopamine and is given to parkinson's disease patient as dopamine cannot cross the blood brain barrier while this parent molecule can cross
Bipolar Disorder
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
Critical Periods
times during which certain environmental influences can have an impact on the development of the infant
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Konrad Lorenz
Austrian zoologist and ethologist who studied the behavior of birds and emphasized the importance of innate as opposed to learned behaviors
Harry Harlow
A Psychologist who specialized in higher animal development, contact comfort, attachment; experimented with baby rhesus monkeys and presented them with cloth or wire "mothers;" showed that the monkeys became attached to the cloth mothers because of (contact comfort)
Mary Ainsworth
A Psychologist interested mainly in developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment. Discovered 3 Types of attachment 1.Secure Attachments(66%), 2.. Avoidant Attachments(21%) 3.Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment (12)
The Strange Situation
Used to study parenting styles and infants' reactions to these styles. It tests the reactions of toddlers to a period of temporary absence on the part of the caregiver, during which the child is left alone with a stranger. The study has frequently been replicated. (Mary Ainsworth) Also called Ainsworth's Stranger Paradigm
Secure Attachments
66%; constantly explored when parent was present; distressed when they left and came to parents when they returned
Avoidant Attachments
Infants may resist being held by the parents and will explore the novel environment. They do not go to the parents for comfort when they return after and absence (21%)
Anxious/Ambivalent Attachment
Attachment style in which infants become extremely upset when their caregiver leaves but reject the caregiver when he or she returns (12%)
Stranger anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by about 8 months of age. Makes sense from an evolutionary standpoint because that is when babies start to become more mobile.
Authoritarian Parents
Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority
Permissive Parents
Parenting style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior.
Authoritative Parents
Parents who set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence
continuity vs discontinuity
Focus is on whether developmental change is smooth and constant or choppy through stages (For Some reason it is a GREAT Controversy)
psychosexual stages
The 5 childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
libido
Sigmund Freud's terminology of instinctual sexual energy or sexual drive.
Oral Stage
Freud's first stage of personality development, from birth to about age 2, during which the instincts of infants are focused on the mouth as the primary pleasure center.
Anal Stage
Freud's second stage of psychosexual development where the primary sexual focus is on the elimination or holding onto feces. The stage is often thought of as representing a child's ability to control his or her own world.
Phallic Stage
Third stage of psychosexual development, marked by erotic attention on the phallic region and the development of the Oedipus complex(males) and Electra Complex(Girls)
Oedipus Complex
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Electra Complex
A pattern described by Freud in which a young girl develops an attachment to her father and competes with her mother for his attention.
penis envy
In Psychoanalytic Thought, the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.
Latency Stage
Freud's fourth stage of psychosexual development where sexuality is repressed in the unconscious and children focus on identifying with their same sex parent and interact with same sex peers. 5 - Puberty. Think COOTIES
Genital Stage
Freud's last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence).
anal expulsive character
Character type that results from a fixation at the early anal stage. Person may be overly generous or has trouble with bowel control
anal retentive character
Character type that results from a fixation at the late anal stage. Such a person may suffer from constipation or may be stingy.
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Jean Piaget
Four stage theory of cognitive development: 1. sensorimotor, 2. preoperational, 3. concrete operational, and 4. formal operational. He said that the two basic processes work in tandem to achieve cognitive growth-assimilation and accomodation
schemas
According to Jean Piaget , cognitive structures that influence how information from the environment is perceived, stored, and remembered
Assimilation
Interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
accommodation
in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality
stage theorists
At every stage, something needs to happen, then they can move onto the next stage Erikson(Social) , Piaget(Cognitive),Freud(Social), Kolberg(Moral), Havighurst)
Sensorimotor Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities.
Preoperational Stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic ordo NOT yet understand the concepts of conservation in this stage (that is that objects remain the same even when their shapes change).
concepts of conservation
These concepts demonstrate how the different aspect of objects are conserved even when their arrangement changes. 3 main (volume, area and number)
Concrete Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events and the concepts of conservation.
Formal Operational Stage
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts(Like the manipulation of things that you have never actually seen. Not all people actually reach this stage. Einstein probably was the God of this Stage.Metacognition reached.
Metacognition
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task. Reached during the Formal Operational Stage.
Information-processing model.
A model of memory in which information must pass through discrete stages via the processes of attention, encoding, storage, and retrieval
Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral development; presented boys moral dilemmas and studied their responses and reasoning processes in making moral decisions. Most famous moral dilemma is "Heinz" who has an ill wife and cannot afford the medication. Should he steal the medication and why?
Heinz Dilemma
A woman is dying and needs an expensive medication. Husband cannot afford the medication, should he steal it or should she die?
universal ethical principles
the sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
Social Learning Theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
Corpus callosums
Large band of white neural fibers that connects to to brain hemispheres and carries messages between them; myelinated; involved in intelligence, consciousness, and self-awareness; does it reach full maturity until 20s (Very Important because it is LARGER in GIRLS than in Guys). An Important factor in differential Gender Development
Gender Schema Theory
The theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
Cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Retroactive interference
Situation in which information learned more recently hinders the recall of information learned previously
Proactive interference
situation in which Previously learned information hinders the recall of information learned more recently
Echo
a mental representation of an auditory stimulus (sound) that is held briefly in sensory memory
Explicit memories
awareness of remembering, can be revealed by testing memory; AKA declarative memory. Semantic & episodic memory
Implicit memories
Are memories of skills, preferences and dispositions. These memories are evidently processed, not by the hippocampus, but by a more primitive part of the brain, the cerebellum. They are also called procedural or nondeclarative memories.
Illusion
The condition of being deceived by a false perception or belief
Context dependent
memory, the environment acts as a retrieval cue. This means that it is easier to remember information when you are in the location (context) where you originally learned that information.
Eidetic imagery
A form of memory, often called photographic memory, which consists of especially vivid visual recollections of material.
Redintegration
the phenomenon of a sense cueing a memory
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Condition of being almost, but not quite, able to remember something; used to investigate the nature of semantic memory
Semantic memory
The part of declarative memory that stores general information such as names and facts.
Elaborative rehearsal
a memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory
Maintenance rehearsal
a system for remembering involving repeating information to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
Dual memory
Theory suggesting that information coded both visually and verbally is remembered better than information coded in only one of those two ways.
Retroactive inhibition
decreased ability to recall previously learned information, caused by learning of new information
engram
The physical changes in the brain associated with a memory. It is also known as the memory trace
Reminiscence
the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort)
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Retrieval
the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory
Encoding
the processing of information into the memory system--for example, by extracting meaning
Decay theory of memory
loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used.
Working memory
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Selective attention
this term describes the situation when you are focused on certain stimuli in the environment while other stimuli are excluded (Cocktail Party Effect)
overlearning
A technique used to improve memory where information is learned to the point that it can be repeated without mistake more than one time.
Encoding failure
the inability to recall specific information because of insufficient encoding of the information for storage in long-term memory
Decay
Theory which states that memory fades and/or disappears over time if it is not used or accessed.
Disuse
another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear
hypnosis
a social interaction in which one person suggests to another that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
consolidation
A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory
symbolization
The conscious use of an idea or object to represent another actual event or object; often, the meaning is not clear because the symbol may be representative of something unconscious.
Categorization
a cognitive process used to organize information by placing it into larger groupings of information
thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Short Term Memory
The memory stage with a small capacity (7 +- 2 chunks) and brief duration (< 30 seconds) that we are consciously aware of and in which we do our problem solving, reasoning and decision making.
Long Term Memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
Serial position effect
Tendency for items at the beginning and end of a list to be learned better than items in the middle
Age regression
During hypnosis, a hypnotized person is given suggestions to re-experience an event that occurred at an earlier age and to act like and feel like a person of that particular age.
Suggestion
the sequential mental process in which one thought leads to another by association
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred before the onset of amnesia; eg a soldier's forgetting events immediately before a shell burst nearby, injuring him
Ebbinghaus
Studied memory using nonsense syllables and the method of savings, created the "Forgetting Curve".
Forgetting Curve
The graphic pattern representing the relationship between measures of learning and the length of the retention interval: As the retention interval gets longer, memory decreases. (Ebbinghaus)
Loftus
Person who studied false memories (confabulations) and impact on eyewitness testimony; and the effects of leading questions, Conclusion was that memories had to be validated by physical evidence.
Confabulations
An attempt to fill in the gap of memories where no memories actually exist
Korsakoff
Brain damage to the mammillary bodies resulting in anterograde amnesia, caused by a lack of vitamin B1 thiamine in the brain, typically the result of severe alcoholism
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the onset of the amnesia; eg, see in a boxer who suffers a severe blow to the head and loses memory for events after the blow
Amnesia
Loss of memory that occurs as a result of physical or psychological trauma
Luria
Studied how brain damage leads to impairment in sensory, motor, and language functions, also studied eidetikers ,and developed a Probability Distribution scheme for localizing cortical areas responsible for language systems
Eidetikers
someone who has a photographic memory
Reconstruction
recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall
Constructive processing
Re-organizing or updating memories on the basis of logic, reasoning, or the addition of new information
Remembering
Being able to retain information and recall it when needed
"Flashbulb" memories
detailed memory for events surrounding a dramatic event that is vivid and remembered with confidence
positive transfer
The process of one skill helping the learning and performance of a separate but similar skill
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone, produced by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal cortex regulates the production of cortisol(steriod hormone) from anterior pituitary
Parietal lobe
portion posterior to the frontal lobe, responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
displacement
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redirecting anger toward a safer outlet
retention
The length of time records must be retained and proper disposition of them when they should no longer be stored.
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next, also called Schwann cells in PNS and Oligodendrocytes in CNS
Memory
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
storage failure
Poor durability of certain stored memories which leads to forgetting
retrieval failure
the inability to recall long-term memories because of inadequate or missing retrieval cues
Three-Box Model
A model that says that info that does not transfer out of the sensory register or short term memory is assumed to be forgotten forever. once in along term memory, info can be retrieved for use in analyzing incoming sensory information or performing mental operations in short term memory
Sensory memory
Very brief (0.5 to 1.0 second for visual stimuli and 2 to 3 seconds for auditory stimuli) but extensive memory for sensory events
George Sterling
A Psychologist that demonstrated that sensory memory exists, and that it only lasts a split second. He flashed a grid of nine letters, three rows and three columns, to participants for 1/20 of a second. The participants in the study were directed to recall either the top, middle or bottom row immediately after the grid was flashed to them (Using a low, medium or high tone to indicate which row they should recall). The participants could recall any of the three rows perfectly. This experiment demonstrated that the entire grid must be held in the sensory memory for a split second. Also Ionic Memory
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
echoic memory
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
Chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Levels of Processing Model
A view stating that how well something is remembered depends on the degree to which incoming information is mentally processed
Mood congruent theory
the idea that you are more likely to recall an item if you are in the same mood when you encoded the item (if you are in a happy mood then you remember happy events).
state dependent memory
Long-term memory retrieval is best when a person's physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval of the information is the same.
relearning effect
it will take less time to relearn material we previously encoded, even if we have "forgotten" what we learned previously
long-term potentiation
an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
Test Anxiety
a combination of physiological, emotional, and cognitive components that are caused by the stress of taking exams and that may interfere with one's ability to think, reason, and plan,Yerkes-Dodson Law says it is not necessary to get rid of all this anxiety to do well on a test.
Bulimia Nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
OCD
repetive behaviors, mental attacks, behaviors, preventing, reducing distress, prevented some dreaded event, reconizes obsessions are excessive or unreasonable, not apply to kids
Alfred Kinsey
College professor at Indiana University, Bloomington, author of "Sexual Behavior in the Human Male" and "Sexual Behavior in the Human Female;" collectively known as the Kinsey Report; report was controversial and inflammatory but well-received and immensely popular. Factored in the spurring of research for birth control. Took a sample of 10,000 men, data said that sexual orientation was diverse and many were bisexual. Had actually studied the genealogy of flies before this.
Anorexia
self starvation, a refusal to maintain minimum body weight
Exhaustion
The harmful third stage of the general adaptation syndrome(GAS) , stress exceeds body's ability to recover.The parasympathetic nervous system returns our physiological state to normal., If the crises is not resolved, resources become depleted, immunity drops, sometimes causing illnesses, ulcers, depression, or death
Yerkes-Dodson Law.
Evidences arousal theory; the more complex a task, the lower level of arousal that can be tolerated without interference before the performance deteriorates; ex. used in class-driving to school, driving angry, finding a new location, boiling an egg
Arousal Theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
Habituation
Decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner (Being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming)
Perfectionism
An unhealthy compulsion to do things perfectly is called:
Biorhythms
An innate periodicity in an organism's physiological processes, as sleep and wake cycles.
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion, or a theory about the relationship between emotional experience and physiological activity suggesting that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain
Amygdala
Two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to EMOTION
Lateral hypothalamus
The part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals, if destroyed an animal may starve to death.
Kinesics
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
Stimulus motives
Motives that cause humans and other animals to increase stimulation when the level of arousal is too low (examples are curiosity and the motive to explore).
Polygraph Test
Test that measures respiration, blood pressure, and perspiration while person is asked a series of questions; outcome is a diagnostic opinion about honesty. (Criticised as Pseudoscience)
Ventromedial hypothalamus
The part of the hypothalamus that produces feelings of fullness as opposed to hunger, and causes one to stop eating. If destroyed an animal will become obese.
Intrinsic motivation
Engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations
Adrenaline
A catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin)
Catecholamine
any of a group of chemicals including epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine that are produced in the medulla of the adrenal gland
Cortisone
glucocorticoid hormone that is isolated from the adrenal cortex; used as an anti-inflammatory agent
Endorphins
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Specific hunger
A craving for a particular substance such as a salt.
Reinforcement
A stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
Behavioral Response
The actions taken in response to stress
Episodic
occurring or appearing at usually irregular intervals
Taste aversions
the intense dislike and/or avoidance of particular foods that have been associated with nausea or discomfort, Type of Classical Conditiong
Homeostasis
metabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changes
Meta-needs
also called growth motives or being values; self-actualization is growth motivated; these are the motivations of self-actualizing people
Primary motives
Biological needs that must be met for survival: hunger, sleep, thirst, pain.
secondary motives
Motives based on learned needs, drives, and goals
Limbic System
A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
Attribution
The process of explaining the causes of people's behavior, including our own
Deception.
in research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study's methods and purposes
Control questions
Non-threatening questions used on people when attached to a polygraph to establish baseline levels of arousal ( Like have you ever been tempted to steal?)
Irrelevant Questions
In a polygraph test random questions used for truth testing, Like (Is you Name Julius?)
Relevant questions
The questions asked by the polygraph operator during the lie-detection procedure that directly relate to the investigation or the reason for undergoing the test.
Guilty Knowledge Test
alternative to the polygraph test often used after the test is a complete failure, that relies on the premise that criminals harbor concealed knowledge about the crime that innocent people don't
Response
a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent
Ecological fallacy
The fallacy of deducing a false relationship between the attributes or behavior of individuals based on observing that relationship for groups to which the individuals belong (Stereotypes)
Prejudice
a negative attitude formed toward an individual or group without sufficient experience with the person or group (Different from a Stereotype)
Archetype
the original pattern or model; a perfect example
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Treatment involving the combination of behaviorism (based on the theories of learning) and cognitive therapy (based on the theory that our cognitions or thoughts control a large portion of our behaviors). (CBT)
Stereotype
A fixed idea or conception of a character or an idea which does not allow for any individuality, often based on religious, social, or racial prejudices.
Ego Dystonic
Refers to thoughts and behaviors which are in conflict with how someone sees their ideal self. These people are motivated to seek treatment themselves.
Exposure and response prevention
a behavioral treatment for OCD that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts. AKA exposure and ritual prevention
Common sense theory
idea held by most people that a stimulus leads to the subjective experience of an emotion which then triggers a physiological response
Drive reduction theory
theory that claims that behavior is driven by a desire to lessen internal states of tension resulting from needs that disrupt homeostasis
Opponent-process
theory of colour vision stating that we percieve color in terms of paired opposites: red/green, yellow/blue, black/white
Stimulus motive
Unlearned motive, such as curiosity or contact, that prompts us to explore or change the world around us
Coolidge effect
if animal is presented with a normal partner they will engage in sexual behaviour even when they have been just previously sexually satiated with another partner
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. Also called the skeletal nervous system
Parasympathetic Nervous System
division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
inverted-U function
describes the relationship between arousal and performance. Both low and high levels of arousal produce lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal
Pituitary gland.
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, this gland regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Extrinsic motivation
motivation reflecting a desire for external rewards, such as wealth or the respect of others
Hypoglycemia
abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet
Sex Drive
refers to the strength of one's motivation to engage in sexual behavior
Instinct Theory
the now-outmoded view that certain behaviors are completely determined by innate factors ex:instincts
Incentive Theory
According to this theory, behavior is goal-directed; we behave in ways that allow us to attain desirable stimuli and avoid negative stimuli
Incentives
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Set-point theory
1. Human bodies are programmed to maintain weight.

2. The lateral(hungry) and ventromedial hypothalamus(full) acts to cancel each other out.

3. Our fatty cells have a set-point they want to maintain
4. Heredity influences set points and therefore, body type also
5. If weight is lost, food intake is increased and energy expenditure(metabolism) decreases or vice versa.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by William Masters and Virgina Johnson
1. excitement, 2. plateau, 3. orgasm, and 4. resolution.
Masters and Johnson
Among the first to use laboratory experimentation and observation to study the sexual response cycle (1950s-60s); levels include excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution.brought hundreds of volunteers into their lab and observed them having various types of sex. They used tools to measure penile length and blood flow and vaginal expansion and lubrication. They perform thousands of trials and their results over a twenty year period were extensive. They even tried to "cure" homosexuality and claimed a 30% failure rate.
Initial excitement
Stage One of Sexual Response Cycle: Heart rate increases, Breathing increases, Erection occurs, and the cliterus swells with blood
Plateau phase
the second phase of the sexual response cycle, during which physical arousal continues to increase as the partners bodies prepare for orgasm
Orgasm
3rd phase of sexual response cycle. The highest point of sexual excitement, marked by strong feelings of pleasure
Resolution phase
the fourth phase of the sexual response cycle, following orgasm, during which the body returns to its resting, or normal state. However ONLY the MALE enters the refractory period.
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Simon LeVay
Psychologist who wrote Sexual Brain and Queer Science, completed research on the DNA and finding a gay gene, he found the gene INAH3 was more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men, and also discovered that part of hypothalamus is larger in straight men than in gay men and women.
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard (Like taking an AP TEST).
Organizational psychologists
Psychologists who study various aspects of the human work environment, such as communication among employees, socialization or enculturation of workers, leadership, job satisfaction, stress and burnout, and overall quality of life. Two main theoories: Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
assumes that the average person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible. therefore, people must be forced, controlled, and threatened with punishment to accomplish organizational goals
Theory Y
Assumes that, given a challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity
Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts
MORE than two goals to options( have both positive and negative aspects) to consider, making the decision even more difficult and stressful (i.e. college students deciding on a career)
Approach-avoidance
psychological conflict that occurs when a person must choose ONE goal that has both attractive and unattractive features
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
A conflict arising from having to choose between undesirable alternatives. (Like Raising Taxes or Reducing Spending).
Approach-approach conflict
A conflict arising from having to choose between equally desirable alternatives.
Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Schachter and Singer's theory that emotion is the interaction of physiological arousal and the cognitive label that we apply to explain the arousal
Schachter and Singer
Experiment with humans where they are injected with adrenaline and either told there will be no symptoms, wrong symptoms or told the exact symptoms. Supports ____________'s two factor model of emotion
Type A Personality
A theory used to describe a person with a significant number of traits focused on urgency, impatience, success, and excessive competition. Higher Risk for Coronary Heart Disease.
Type B Personality
A theory used to describe person with a significant number of traits focused on relaxation, lack of urgency, and normal or reduced competition.
Type AB Personality
Mixture of Type A and Type B Personalities.
Rahe and Holmes
2 Psychologist that came up with a test that measures stress in your lives. The test is called the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) and measures stress using life-change units (LCUs).
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Thomas homes and richard rahe created this scale measuring the stress rating of certain life changing events by using life changing Units (LCUs), whether good or bad. 150 or more units and you were having a stressful year. Not very accurate. (SRRS)
life-change units
in stress research, the measure of the stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period.Abreviated (LCUs) Made by (Thomas Holmes and richard rahe)
General Adaptation Syndrome
Seylye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages--alarm, resistance, exhaustion (GAS)
Hans Seyle
The father of "modern stress theory." Defined eustress and distress. Stated that stress is a mutual action of forces in the body.General Adaptation Syndrome
Eustress
A positive stress that energizes a person and helps a person reach a goal
distress
Stress that stems from acute anxiety or pressure
Alarm reaction
First stage of the general adaptation syndrome(GAS) , involving mobilization of the body's resurces to cope with an immediate stressor. (Hans Seyle)
Resistance
The second phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) , in which the body mobilizes its resources(hormones, energy) to withstand the effects of the stress. If this stage goes to long a body can deplete its resources. (Hans Seyle)
Sigmund Freud
Austrian neurologist who originated psychoanalysis (1856-1939); Said that human behavior is irrational; behavior is the outcome of conflict between the id (irrational unconscious driven by sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking desires) and ego (rationalizing conscious, what one can do) and superego (ingrained moral values, what one should do).
Abraham Maslow
Humanistic psychologist who developed a theory of motivation that emphasized psychological (Hierarchy of Needs)-needs at a lower level dominate an individual's motivation as long as they are unsatisfied; self-actualization, transcendence
Ivan Pavlov
A Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research into learned behavior (conditioning) and who discovered classical(Pavlovian) conditioning by; training dogs to salivate at the ringing of a bell
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Biopsychologists
explain human thought and behavior strictly in terms of biological processes
Self-actualization
According to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential
Psychodynamic
Characterized by conflict among instincts, reason, and conscience; describes the mental processes envisioned in Freudian theory
Freudian theory
Psychoanalysis; emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development
Psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
Abnormal Psychology
The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.
Behaviorism
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes
Humanism
A theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
John B. Watson
American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes
William James
Founder of functionalism and also wrote Principles of Psychology; studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; important emotion theory, also involved in: Pragmatism, and The Meaning of Truth
Principles of Psychology
1890, considered to be the first modern psychology textbook by William James
Functionalism
William James's school of thought that stressed the adaptive and survival value of behaviors
James - Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
The Will to Believe Doctrine
A lecture delivered by William James, and first published in 1896, which defended our right, in certain cases, to adopt a belief on faith even without prior evidence of its truth,In virtue of this dependency of truth on belief ,it argues that it can be rational for us to have faith in our own ability to accomplish tasks that require confidence even if at the time we lack sufficient evidence for whether we truly possess that ability.
Radical Empiricism
pragmatist doctrine put forth by William James. James' factual statement is that our experience isn't just a stream of data, it's a complex process that's full of meaning. We see objects in terms of what they mean to us and we see causal connections between phenomena
Psychologist's fallacy
A fallacy that where someone confuses his own standpoint with that of the mental fact about which he is making his report
Carl Rogers
A humanist who revolutionized therapy with his book, Client-Centered Therapy in 1951; furthered humanistic theory. Also developed the theory of unconditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard
According to Carl Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person.
Comparative psychology
Branch of psychology that studies the behavior of different animal species
Søren Kierkegaard
Danish philosopher, founder of existentianalism, said "truth is subjectivity", religion is a personal matter, and relationships with God require suffering, wrote "Either/Or", The Sickness Unto Death"
Gestalt school
Unlike Structuralism this school prefers to look at the whole rather than small parts of the thing in order to comprehend it (The sum is greater than the parts).
Structuralism
A school of psychology based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its BASIC elements and to investigate how these elements are related. Differed from the Gestalt School Approach.
Classical Conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
Operant Conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher (B. F. Skinner)
Conditioning
a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
B. F. Skinner
Pioneer of operant conditioning who believed that everything we do is determined by our past history of rewards and punishments. He is famous for use of his operant conditioning aparatus which he used to study schedules of reinforcement on pigeons and rats.
Max Wertheimer
Founder of Gestalt who studied "phi phenomenon." Believed that some complex perceptions cannot be reduced to simpler sensory experiences and that the mind operated on general organizing principles to perceive some complex sensory stimuli based on properties like proximity, similarity and closure
John Watson
Early behaviorist; emphasis on external behaviors of people and their reactions on a given situation; famous for Little Albert study in which baby was taught to fear a white rat, also used generalization-inductive reasoning.
Phi phenomenon
An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession. Studied by Max Wertheimer.
Little Albert Study
A study by John Watson and his wife Rosalie Rayner, Lttle albert associated loud noise with a white rat, he began to become afraid of it, and he was never unconditioned
Social Psychology
the branch of psychology that studies persons and their relationships with others and with groups and with society as a whole
Developmental Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Cognitive Psychology
the scientific study of mental processes, including perception, thought, memory, and reasoning
Cultural Psychology
A psychology that is concerned with how the culture in which an individual lives -- its traditions, language, and worldview -- influences that person's mental representations and psychological processes.
Psychology
the scientific study of mental processes and behavior
Super Ego
Part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement and future aspirations (Works on Moral Principle_
ID
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. Theoperates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
Environmental psychology
The field of psychology that studies the ways in which people and the environment influence each other.
Differential psychology
founded by Francis Galton; the field of psychology that studies individual differences in physical, personality, and intellectual characteristics
Francis Galton
English scientist (and Founder of Eugenics) (cousin of Charles Darwin) established differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology and who explored many fields: heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, anthropology. Maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; compared identical & fraternal twins, hereditary differences in intellectual ability
Covert behavior
Behavior that can be subjectively perceived only by the person performing the behavior. Thoughts and feelings for example.
Overt Behavior
Behavior that has the potential for being directly observed by an individual other than the one performing the behavior.
Strict behaviorism
The view that only overt behavior can be studied scientifically.
Peer influence
caused by attempting to fit into a group by conforming, learning to cooperate with others to gain popularity,
Learning Psychology
Emphasizes the effects of behavior on past experiences. Think AFTER the fact.
Behavior modification
Method of changing abnormal behavior thru systematic program based on the learning principles of CLASSICAL conditioning, OPERANT Conditioning, or OBSERVATIONAL Learning.
Observational Learning
A type of learning that occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models
Titchener
British psychologist who studied with Wundt; opened laboratory at Cornell; focused on identifying the basic elements of consciousness (Structuralism) rather than the relationship between them
Wundt
first true psychologist, all of nature including mind could be studied scientifically, introspection, methodology, beginnings of structuralism, many books=influential, trained many others (baldwin, titchener), "Principles of physiological psych"=first textbook on psych
Ego
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
APA
American Psychology Association
Eclectic approach
An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client's problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy.
Repression
A classical defense mechanism that protects you from impulses or ideas that would cause anxiety by preventing them from becoming conscious
Common sense approach
when presented a stimulus, ou experience the conscious feeling of arousal, followed by he actual physical, autonomic arousal
Behavior
the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation
Perception
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
Sensation
the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
Existentialism
A label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy, stressing choice, freedom, decision, and anguish, and emerging strongly during and after the World War II years.
Social-Cultural Psychology
Field of Psychology that deals with the influence of socialization of enculturation on behaviors which shape movements of a group based of cultural mores.
reaction formation
a defense mechanism in which a person unconsciously develops attitudes and behavior that are the opposite of unacceptable repressed desires and impulses and serve to conceal them

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