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192 terms

Medical Terminology Ch. 6

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a-, an-
without or absence of
brady-
slow
dys-
bad, abnormal, painful, difficult
epi-, ep-
upon, over, above, top
hyper-
excessive, abnormally high, above
para-, par-
alongside or abnormal
poly-
excessive, over or many
quadri-
four
ankyl/o
crooked
arthr/o, articul/o
joint
burs/o
purse or sac, bursa
carcin/o
cancer
carp/o
wrist
chondri, chondr/o
cartilage
condyl/o
knuckle of a joint
cost/o
rib
cran/o, crani/o
skull, cranium
electr/o
electricity
fasci/o
fascia
femor/o
thigh
fibr/o
fiber
fibul/o
fibula
ili/o
hip or groin, flank, ilium of the pelvis
ischi/o
ischium (hip bone)
kinesi/o
motion
kyph/o
hump
lamin/o
thin, lamina
leuk/o
white
lith/o
stone
lord/o
bent forward
menisci/o
meniscus
muscul/o
muscle
myel/o
bone marrow
my/o, myos/o
muscle
orth/o
straight
oste/o, ost/o
bone
pariet/o
wall
patell/o
patella
petr/o
stone
phalang/o
phalanges, fingers
phys/o
growth
por/o
hole
pub/o
pubis
radi/o
radius
sacr/o
sacrum
sarc/o
flesh or meat
scoli/o
curved
skelet/o
skeleton
spondyl/o
vertebra
stern/o
chest, sternum
syn/o
connect
synov/o, synovi/o
synovial
tars/o
tarsal bone
tax/o
reaction to a stimulus or movement
tend/o, ten/o, tendon/o
tendon
troph/o
development
vertebr/o
vertebra
-a, -ae
singular form, plural form
-algia
pain
-asthenia
weakness
-cele
hernia. swelling, or protrusion
-centesis
surgical puncture
-clasia, -clasis, -clast
break apart
-desis
surgical fixation, FUSION, or immobilization
-dynia
pain
-ectomy
surgical excision, removal
-emia
condition of blood
-genesis
origin, cause
-gram
a record or image
-graphy
recording process
-ia
condition of
-iatry
treatment, specialty
-ist
one who specializes
-itis
inflammation
-lysis
loosen or dissolve
-malacia
softening
-oma
tumor
-osis
condition of increase
-pathy
disease
-plasia
formation or growth, shape
-plasty
surgical repair
-plegia
paralysis
-ptosis
drooping
-rrhaphy
suturing
-scope
instrument, used for viewing
-scopy
process of viewing
-tic
pertaining to
-tomy
incision
-y
process of
achondroplasia
A disease that causes dwarfism. A dwarf is an individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.
a/chondr/o/plasia
ankylosis
Disease that means "condition of crooked." The persons joints are abnormally stiff and movement is difficult.
ankyl/osis
arthralgia
Joint pain. Often the first symptom of joint or bone disease. Also a common complaint following an injury to the joint.
arthr/algia
arthritis
Joint inflammation. A general disorder resulting in inflammation and degeneration of a joint.
arthr/itis
arthrocentesis
Excess fluids are aspirated, or withdrawn by suction, through a surgical puncture into the synovial cavity of the joint.
arthr/o/centesis
arthrochondritis
When the articular cartilage within synovial joints undergoes inflammatioin, resulting in joint pain during movement.
arthr/o/chondr/itis
arthroclasia
The breaking of an abnormally stiff joint during surgery to increase the range of motion, or ROM
arthr/o/clasis
arthrodesis
The surgical fixation of a joint.
arthr/o/desis
arthrogram
An X-ray of a joint after injecting a contrast media, air or both to highlight the synovial joint.
arthr/o/gram
arthrolysis
When a joint is loosened of abnormal restrictions, such as calcium deposits and bursliths.
arthr/o/lysis
arthroplasty
A procedure to repair a joint. A complete arthroplasty refers to a joint replacement.
arthr/o/scopy
arthrotomy
A surgical incision into the synovial cavity of a joint.
arthr/o/tomy
ataxia
The inability to coordinate muscles during a voluntary activity. A sign of a nervous system disorder that is often inherited.
a/tax/ia
atrophy
When a bone is casted to treat fractures a lack of movement in the limb leads to a reduction in muscle strength. Atrophy is a sign of reduced muscle size.
a/troph/y
bradykinesia
A condition of slow movement.
brady/kines/ia
bunion
An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe, caused by inflammation of a bursa near the big toe.
bursectomy
Surgery involving the removal of a bursa from a joint.
burs/ectomy
bursitis
The inflammation of a bursa, which is a "purse or sac," and refers to a saclike bursa that cushions certain joints.
burs/itis
bursolith
A calcium deposit within a bursa of the foot. Diagnosis is confirmed with an X-ray, and is typically surgically removed.
burs/o/lith
carpal tunnel syndrome
Characterized by inflammation of the wrists that puts pressure on the median nerve resulting in local pain and restricted movement.
carpoptosis
Known as "wrist drop," its a weakness of the wrist resulting in difficulty supporting the hand.
carp/o/ptosis
chiropratic
A field of therapy that is centered on manipulation of bones and joints.
chondrectomy
A surgical removal, or excision, of the cartilage associated with a joint.
chondr/ectomy
chondronplasty
A surgical repair of cartilage associated with a joint.
chondr/o/plasty
colles' fracture
A break in the distal part of the radius
comminuted fracture
A break resulting in fragmentation of the bone.
compression fracture
A crushed break, often due to weight or pressure applied to a bone during a fall.
costectomy
A surgery involving the removal of a rib.
cost/ectomy
cramps
Prolonged, involuntary muscular contractions. Often in the stomach wall or thigh muscle after exercise.
cranioplasty
When one or more bones of the cranium undergo repair during surgery.
crani/o/plasty
craniotemy
Surgery of the brain
crani/o/tomy
decalcification
The abnormal reduction of calcium in bone. Often caused by hormonal disorder upsetting the calcium balance between the bloodstream and the bone.
degenerative joint disease
General term for the disease of joints in which the cartilage undergoes degeneration. It's progressive becoming worse over time. During the process, the articular cartilage degrades and is often replaced with bone.
diskectomy
Surgical procedure that is used to reduce the pain of a herniated disk by surgically removing the intervertebral disk.
displaced fracture
A break causing an abnormal alignment of bone pieces.
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy
Children occasionally born with a disease causing skeletal muscle degeneration, Abbreviated DMD, this disease has no cure.
dyskinesia
bad, abnormal, painful or difficult in movement. A common sign of musculoskeletal disorder.
dys/kines/ia
dystrophy
General term to describe a deformity arising during development. It is a sign of a congenital disease that occurs in different forms.
electromyography
The measuring of the strength of a muscle contraction.
electr/o/my/o/graphy
epicondylitis
Small bony elevations on the humerus near the elbow joint. This are of the elbow becomes inflammed usually due to an injury.
epi/condyl/itis
epiphyseal fracture
A break at the location of the growth plate, which can affect growth of the bone.
fasciotomy
A surgical incision into the connective tissue sheath surrounding a muscle.
fasci/o/tomy
fibromyalgia
A disease of unknown origin that produces widespread pain of musculoskeletal structures of the limb, face, and trunk. There is some evidence that it maybe, at least in part, caused by sleep deprivation.
fibr/omy/o/algia
fracture
A clinical term for a break in a bone.
gout
Sharp pain in the joints of the toes. Often caused by an abnormal accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, a waste product of protein metabolism.
greenstick fracture
A slight break in a bone that appears as a slight fissure in an X-ray.
herniated disk
The rupture of an intervertebral disk which places pressure against spinal nerves, creating back pain. A result of sudden movement or an attempt to lift a heavy object.
hypertrophy
The sign of excessive muscle growth or development. It is produced by the addition of protein to muscle fibers, which is stimulated by strenuous muscle activity.
hyper/troph/y
kyphosis
Occurs when the upper thoracic curve bends posteriorly, causing an abnormal hump at the upper back, often accompanies osteoporosis.
kyph/osis
laminectomy
Performed to treat herniated disk during which the part of a vertebrae known as the lamina is surgically removed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
leukemia
Malignant bone cancer that arises from the cells of the red bone marrow. Named after "condition of white blood" because of the high levels of deformed white blood cells.
leuk/emia
lordosis
An exaggerated anterior spinal curve with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
marfan's syndrome
Congenital disease that results in excessive cartilage formation at the epiphyseal plates (growth plates), forming abnormally long limbs and a tall, thin body.
meniscitis
A crescent-shaped band of cartilage that supports certain joints, such as the knee and shoulder.
menisc/itis
myalgia
The condition of muscle pain due to the buildup of lactic acids in the muscle tissue. This is temporary and only lasts about a day.
my/algia
myasthenia gravis
Characterized by a progressive failure of muscles to respond to nerve stimulation. Meaning serious muscle weakness.
my/asthenia
myeloma
A malignant tumor arising from the tissue site of the red bone marrow.
myel/oma
myocele
An injury to muscle that may cause the muscle to tear through the fascia (tough layer of connective tissue surrounding a muscle), and causing a protrusion.
my/o/cele
myoplasty
The surgical repair of a muscle.
my/o/plasty
myorrhaphy
The repair of a muscle when surgery is required to suture the torn ends together.
my/o/rrhaphy
myositis
A common result of muscle injury is a local inflammation.
myos/itis
nondisplaced fracture
A break in which the broken bones retain their alignment.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
The most common pharmacological treatment for any condition, including inflammation or pain of muscle or bone tissue. Aspirin and Ibuprofen are examples.
orthotics
The field of medical support involving the construction of fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts, artificial limbs, and retraction devices.
orth/o/tics
ostectomy
The surgical removal, or excision, of bone tissue.
ost/ectomy
osteitis
inflammation of bone tissue after an injury or exposed to infection.
oste/o/itis
osteoarthritis
A common condition in which the joint structures become worn overtime and are gradually replaced by bone
oste/o/arthr/itis
osteocarcinoma
Bone cancer arising from epithelial tissue that has invaded a bone.
oste/o/carcin/oma
osteoclasis
A necessary break of a bone to correct a defect or an improperly healed fracture.
oste/o/clasis
osteogenesis imperfecta
An inherited disease resulting in impaired bone growth and fragile bones.
oste/o/genesis
osteomalacia
A disease resulting in the softening of bones.
oste/o/malacia
osteomyelitis
Inflammation of the red bone marrow. Usual cause is bacterial infection.
oste/o/myel/itis
osteopathy
A medical field that emphasizes the relationship between muskuloskeletal system and overall health with an emphasis on body alignment and nutrition.
oste/o/pathy
osteoplasty
The surgical repair of a bone
oste/o/plasty
osteoporosis
The abnormal loss of bone density resulting in a loss of posture and flexibility. Known as the condition of "holes in bones"
osteosarcoma
Bone cancer arising from connective tissue, or fleshy meaty part of the bone. This is a more aggressive form of bone cancer.
Paget's disease
Results in bone deformities due to the acceleration of bone loss. Severe bone pain and frequent fractures are symptoms.
paraplegia
Paralysis in which a loss of sensation or voluntary movement of the area of the body below the hips, including both legs.
para/plegia
podiatry
A specialty that focuses on foot health.
podiatrist
A health care professional trained in the field of podiatry.
polymyositis
Inflammation of many muscles. Caused by bacterial infection in which a group of muscles become infected and react with inflammation.
poly/myos/itis
pott's fracture
A break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg.
prosthesis
The medical term for an artificial limb.
quadriplegia
All four limbs are without sensation of voluntary movement.
quadr/i/plegia
reduction
Treatment of fractures by aligning the broken bones to their normal position.
rheumatoid arthritis
An autoimmune disease in which joint structures become eroded by the action of the body's own white blood cells.
rickets
Bones become softened due to the excessive removal of calcium for other body functions. Caused by lack off calcium or vitamin D in the diet.
rotator cuff injury
Trauma to the shoulder that can tear one or more tendons or muscles belonging to the rotator cuff group. The rotator cuff is a combination of four muscles and their tendons that surround and stabilize the shoulder joint. 1) teres minor 2)supraspinatur 3)infraspinatus 4)subspinatus.
scoliosis
A lateral curvature of the spine with a congenital origin, usually in the thoracic or lumbar regions.
scoli/osis
spinal cord injury
Trauma to the vertebral column. If severe, the injury can cause paralysis of areas of the body below the vertebral level of the injury.
spondylosyndesis
When the adjacent vertebrae are fused together following the removal of a herniated disc. Meaning a surgical fixation to connect vertebrae.
spondyl/o/syn/desis
spinal fracture
A spiral-shaped break often caused by twisting stresses along a long bone.
spondylarthritis
Inflammation of joints of vertebrae. It is an uncommon condition of intervertebral joints that leads to a gradual inability to flex or bend the back.
spondyl/arthr/itis
sprain
A tear of collagen fibers within a ligament. Usually caused by stretching the ligament beyond its normal range without warming or slow stretching.
strain
Caused by stretching a muscle beyond its normal range. It often causes bruising due to the tearing of muscle tissue and capillary damage.
temporomandibular joint disease
The temporomandibular joint is the junction of the mandible and the temporal bone, a disease of this joint is temporomandibular joint disease or, TMJ. Results are frequent dislocations making it difficult and painful to move the jaw during speaking or chewing.
tendonitis
Inflammation of a tendon.
tendon/itis
tenodynia
Tendoon pain, syptom of "weekend athletes": people who work inactive jobs during the workweek and become very active on their days off.
ten/o/dynia
tenomyoplasty
The surgical procedure involving the repair of both muscle and tendons.
ten/o/my/o/plasty
tenorrhaphy
The suturing of a tendon to close a tear, such as a rip or tear to the Achilles tendon.
ten/o/rrhaphy
tenosynovitis
A form of tendonitis that also involves inflammation of the synovial membrane surrounding the joint.
ten/o/synov/itis
tenotomy
A tenorraphy often includes the tenotomy procedure, during which one or more incisions are made into a tendon.
ten/o/tomy
vertebroplasty
A surgical procedure that repairs damaged or diseased vertebrae.
vertebr/o/plasty