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CU1-Foundations of US Government
Terms in this set (80)
Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.
This political revolution began with the Declaration of Independence in 1776 where American colonists sought to balance the power between government and the people and protect the rights of citizens in a democracy.
Anti-Federalists rose up as the opponents of the Constitution during the period of ratification. They opposed the Constitution's powerful centralized government, arguing that the Constitution gave too much political, economic, and military control. They instead advocated a decentralized governmental structure that granted most power to the states
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)
(1738-1794) wrote 'On Crimes and Punishments', wanted laws to conform to rational laws of nature
Boycott & Protest
A group's refusal to have commercial dealings with some organization in protest against its policies
Capitalism (Free Market)
an economic system in which the people, not the government, decide what will be produced, how much of it will be produced, and at what price it will be sold
Causes of the American Revolution
Britsih taxed colonies heavily for revenue to pay for the French and Indin War
"No taxation without representation"-colonists resented being taxed without having a representative in Parliament
Tax Acts including: Stamp Act, Sugar Act, and Tea Act angered colonists
Intolerable Acts(Coercive Acts)
Checks & Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
A person with certain rights and responsibilities in his or her country or community
The study of the rights and duties of citizens
Classical Theories of Government
John Locke and Thomas Hobbes made a lot and they were social contract ( you give gov't something and they protect you). Also our natural rights.
A group of people in one place who are ruled by a parent country elsewhere.
The good of the community as a whole.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
A self-governing territory associated with another country
an agreement or a settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions.
Consent of the Governed
The idea that government derives its authority by sanction of the people.
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
government whose power is defined and limited by law
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
a written plan that provides the basic framework of a government
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
Divine Right of Kings
Doctrine that states that the right of ruling comes from God and not people's consent
fair treatment through the normal judicial system, especially as a citizen's entitlement.
Taxes on imported goods
A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.
Equal justice under the Law
principle that every citizen is treated equally and fairly in the judicial system.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
A collection of 85 articles written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison under the name "Publius" to defend the Constitution in detail.
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
The institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
English philosopher and political theorist best known for his book Leviathan (1651), in which he argues that the only way to secure individual rights in civil society is through universal submission to the absolute authority of a sovereign.
Movement of individuals into a population
self-reliance and freedom from outside control
Basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights.
A mathematical sentence that contains less than, greater than, less than or equal to, greater than or equal to, or not equal
term economists use to describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace
The first permanent English settlement in North America, found in East Virginia
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
A characterization of elections by political scientists meaning that they are almost universally accepted as a fair and free method of selecting political leaders.
the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
The person who makes something - both knows that object and owns it
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Might Makes Right
The stronger of two opponents will always control the situation
separation of powers
God's or nature's law that defines right from wrong and is higher than human law
Natural Rights/Inalienable Rights
life, liberty, and property
citizens vote for legislative representatives which in turn select the leaders of the executive branch
Based on ruling/who controls who
the ability of one person to get another person to act in accordance with the first person's intentions
the head of an elected government; the principal minister of a sovereign or state.
Private property rights.
the concept that people have the right and privilege to control their possessions as they wish
Pursuit of Happiness
The inalienable right that allows people to gain their goals that will make them happy (as long as it doesn't infringe on anyone elses' rights
Protestant vs. Catholic
Both are christian but each side believes the other was not christian. Northern Ireland was protestant while Ireland was Catholic.
a fight against a government
A basic principle of traditional democratic theory that describes the relationship between the few leaders and the many followers.
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
duties owed by citizens to their government and other citizens
Rule of Law
the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by subordinating it to well-defined and established laws.
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies
The right of people to rule themselves independently
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
1786 revolt by Massachusetts farmers seeking relief from debt and foreclosure that was a factor in the calling of the Constitutional Convention
A voluntary agreement among individuals to secure their rights and welfare by creating a government and abiding by its rules.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
The authority of a state to govern itself (Rule by the people)
the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government.
Structure of Government
three branches, legislature, executive, judiciary, all branches are controlled by the party, so they are not independent, no checks and balances
Systems of Power
systems that differentially advantage and disadvantage groups depending on their social location
The action of the taxing authorities levying a tax.
Author of the Declaration of Independence
A cohesive collection of customs within a cultural group.
Virginia & New Jersey Plans
The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state's representation based on state population. The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
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