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HESC 321 Exam 2
Terms in this set (86)
What is a CNS depressant? And what is its function?
- Some of the most widely abused drugs
- When taken at low doses, they all produce a qualitatively similar "high" by their disinhibitory effects on the brain
- They relieve stress and anxiety and even induce sleep—effects that appeal to many people particularly those who are struggling with emotional problems and looking for a break, physically and mentally
What is the clinical use for a CNS depressant?
Relief from anxiety, treatment of neurosis, relaxation of muscles, alleviation of lower back pain, relief from withdrawal symptoms, treatment of convulsive disorder, induction of sleep
What is the function of benzodiazepine?
Prescribed for anxiety, relaxation and sleep
What is paradoxical behavior?
Producing unusual responses such as nightmares, anxiety, irritability, sweating and restlessness
Is long-term use of benzodiazepine safe?
No, it is unsafe because of the risk of tolerance, dependence, and addiction
Which neurotransmitters do barbiturates act on?
GABA: found in the limbic system (alters mood), reticular activating system (causes drowsiness), and motor cortex (relaxes muscles)
Do men and women react the same way to barbiturates?
Women have a higher body-fat ratio than men, so their reaction is different
What is the effect of barbiturates on serotonin?
What specific anatomical structures within the brain do barbiturates act upon?
Interfere with activity from the reticular activating system, the limbic system, and motor cortex
What is an anticholinergic side effect related to antihistamines?
Restlessness, agitation, and insomnia
What is the function of GHB? Side effects?
- Found in the body resulting from metabolism of inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA
- Body builders use to stimulate the release of growth hormones
- In Europe it is used as a general anesthesia (unconscious/coma in 15-40 minutes)
- Usually taken orally
What is a hypnotic effect?
Induces drowsiness and encourages sleep; sometimes can cause memory loss
What effect do benzodiazepines have on GABA?
Affect neurons that have receptors for GABA
How is fat solubility related to barbiturates?
Barbiturates that are the most fat-soluble move in and out of the body tissues (such as the brain) rapidly and are likely to be shorter acting. They are also more likely to be stores in fatty tissue; consequently the fat content of the body can influence the effects on the user.
Are all clinical types of alcohol consumable?
No, methyl & isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol are poisonous. Only ethanol can be consumed.
Which forms of alcohol are toxic?
Methyl & isopropyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol are poisonous.
Does carbonation have an effect on alcohol metabolism?
Yes, carbonated drinks are rapidly absorbed
Do males and females metabolize alcohol equally well?
No, males metabolize alcohol quicker
How long does it take to sober up after drinking alcohol?
What is the diuretic action of alcohol?
1. The water content, such as in beer, increases the volume of urine
2. The alcohol depresses the center in the hypothalamus if the brain that controls the release of a water conservation hormone.
Does heavy alcohol use have an effect on the immune system?
Yes; high concentrations of alcohol diminish the production of red and white blood cells, and platelets that are necessary when working with the immune system.
What are the 3 stages of alcohol-induced liver disease?
1. Alcoholic Fatty Liver: Liver cells increase the production of fat, resulting in an enlarged liver (hepatoxic effect). This can be reversed.
2. The second stage develops as the fat cells continue to multiply. Irritation and swelling from continual alcohol use can cause alcohol hepatitis. This can be fatal, but is reversible.
3. This stage is NOT reversible and is fatal. Scarring forms on the liver tissue that is fibrous; it begins to harden the liver (cirrhosis)
What is cirrhosis of the liver?
Scarring of the liver and formation of fibrous tissues; results from alcohol abuse; irreversible
What is "fetal alcohol syndrome"?
A condition effecting children born to alcohol-consuming mothers that is characterized by facial deformities, growth deficiency, and mental retardation
Can moderate alcoholism increase the risk of cancer?
Can one encourage the "sobering up" process after excess alcohol use?
No, drinking black coffee, taking a cold shower, or breathing in pure oxygen does not help to sober up.
Are there differences in alcohol based on ethnicity?
Yes they are because of wet and dry cultures and the effects of alcohol on specific ethnicities (e.g. Asians)
What is the profile of someone more likely to use alcohol throughout life?
What are the valid arguments supporting the legal age of 21?
• A higher minimum drinking age prevents more alcohol-related deaths and injuries among youth.
• Results in fewer alcohol-related problems among youth
• People under the legal age drink less overall and continue to do so during their early twenties
What are the economic costs of alcohol abuse to society?
Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the United States, and alcohol problems cost the nation nearly
$185 billion each year.
What is MADD?
Mothers Against Drunk Driving
Which societal groups supported the Temprence Movement?
Abolitionists and the African American church
Where did Americans get their alcohol during Prohibition?
Speakeasies and through bootleggers.
What were the results of Prohibition to society?
- Patent medicines flourished
1. Alcohol use began to diminish for the first 2 or 3 years after Prohibition was in effect. However, after 3 years of steady decline, the use of distilled liquors rose every year afterward.
2. Enforcement against alcohol use was overthrown by corruption in law enforcement.
3. Many early European immigrants populating American cities during Prohibition came from cultures that viewed drinking as normal and customary, resulting in their refusal to give up alcohol consumption.
What is a "dry" and "wet" culture?
Dry culture: alcohol consumption is not a daily activity
Wet culture: Alcohol is integrated into daily life and activites
Did alcohol use increase or decrease during Prohibition?
It diminished for the first 2 or 3 years, but after 3 years of steady decline the use of distilled liquors rose every year afterward.
How do Americans view alcohol consumption?
We are a "dry" culture
What is "drunken comportment"?
Behavior exhibited under direct influence of alcohol determined by the norms and expectations of a particular culture
What amount of alcohol constitutes binge drinking?
A pattern of drinking five or more drinks for men and four or more drinks for women on a single
occasion, such as the same time or within two hours of each other, on at least 1 day in the past 30 days
What are the characteristics of a binge drinker?
The epsilon-type drinker drinks excessively for a certain period (for days and sometimes weeks) but then
abstains completely from alcohol until the next binge period. The dependence is physical and
psychological. Loss of control over the amount consumed is another characteristic.
What is the 18th Amendment?
The outlaw of alcohol use
What is the impact of the creation of the hypodermic needle?
Morphine could now be injected into the body, which led to an increased addiction
Did patent medicines contribute to opium addiction?
What are the clinical uses of narcotics presently?
To relieve pain.
How do narcotics physiologically act on the body to relieve pain?
By activating the same group of receptors that are controlled by the endogenous substance called endorphins
What is the clinical use for naloxone?
Is it a narcotic antagonist and is used when a user has overdosed on narcotics
Which neurotransmitter is related to the "reward cascade"?
What is speed balling?
Heroin combined with cocaine
When does an addict experience withdrawal after stopping heroin?
After the effects wear off, which is usually 4-6 hours later.
What is buprenorphine?
A drug used to help narcotic addicts; it blocks the withdrawal symptoms
What is the gold standard drug among analgesics?
What are some side effects of narcotic use?
Side effects include drowsiness, respiratory depression, vomiting, inability to urinate, constricted pupils, and constipation
Morphine is a scheduled drug. What is it?
Opium that is extracted and purified, now 10 times more potent
Is tolerance for morphine developed quickly?
Yes, they can if the drug is used continuously because the dose is constantly needed to increase
What is the clinical use for dextromethorphan?
It is an OTC antitussive
What is the clinical use for clonidine?
To relieve some of the opioid withdrawal symptoms
What are endorphins?
Neurotransmitters that have narcotic-like effects
Does development of tolerance extend to other drugs also?
It can be carried over if the user becomes immune to the high; they may pick a new drug, maybe a stronger one to maintain the feeling of being high again. (Gateway Drugs)
What is a "designer drug"?
A new drug that is developed by a person intending to circumvent the illegality of a drug by modifying the
drug into a new compound; Ecstasy is an example
What is the clinical purpose for amphetamines?
• Amphetamines are synthetic chemicals similar to the natural neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine, which are called catecholamines.
• Amphetamines increase the release and block the metabolism of these catecholamine substances, as well as serotonin, in the brain and peripheral nerves associated with the sympathetic nervous system.
What is the difference between amphetamine and methamphetamine?
Methamphetamine is more lipid soluble, meaning it is stronger and passes over the blood brain barrier quicker than amphetamine. It is also more addictive too and takes longer to break down.
Which neurotransmitters cause the pharmacological effects of amphetamines?
Norepinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine
What is a common clinical use for amphetamines?
Narcolepsy, ADHD, appetite suppressant
What is speed?
Combination of cocaine with opioid narcotic, often heroin
What is ice?
Smoke form of an amphetamine. Causes more prolonged, but erratic effects
Why is ecstasy used?
It enhances sensory input and is referred to as an enactogen (a combination of psychedelic and stimulant effects) and it releases both serotonin and dopamine.
What is methylphenidate?
Otherwise known as Ritalin, is a drug prescribed to treat hyperactive children (ADHD); is sometimes used
illegally by college students to suppress fatigue while studying long hours for exams.
What did the Harrison Act do?
It was the first legitimate effort by the US government to regulate addicting substances
What is "freebased" cocaine?
Conversion of cocaine into alkaline form for smoking by reducing impurities, increases potency
What are the pharmacological effects of cocaine on the brain?
• Enhanced activity of the catecholamine compounds (includes nonepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine,) and serotonin neurotransmitters
• Blocks the reuptake of these substances following their release from neurons which causes stimulation and anti-depressant effects.
• The summation of cocaine's effects on dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and serotonin is to cause CNS stimulation:
- Cardiovascular system
- Local anesthetic effect
What is a "xanthine" drug?
A caffeinated stimulant
Is ephedrine use in herbal drugs safe?
No because we do not know exactly what is inside them. (Are they pure?)
What are the physical side effects of taking massive doses of amphetamine?
Increased heartbeat and blood pressure, decreased appetite, increase breathing rate, inability to sleep, sweating, dry mouth, muscle twitching, convulsions, fever, chest pain, irregular heartbeat, and death due to overdose
What are positive effects on caffeine use?
Can help one be alert and focused on work.
What is the Family Smoking Prevention and Control Act?
- Gave FDA authority to regulate the manufacture, distribution, and marketing of tobacco products
- Restricts cigarette sales to youth and requires proof of age
- Some of FDA final rulings resulted in a court challenge, so now FDA needs more research to justify their ruling as of 2013
What is the benefit of smoking cessation by age 30?
The risk of death from smoke-related diseases can decrease by 90%
What are some health risks associated with cigar and pipe smokers?
- Cardiovascular disease: Smoking causes coronary heart disease, leading cause of death in US
- Cancer: Smoking = major cause of cancers in the lungs, bladder, pancreas, cervix, esophagus, stomach, oral cavity, and kidney
- Bronchupolmonary Disease: Cigarettes damage the airways and alvcoli, and causes emphysema and chronic airway obstruction
Are there reduced health risks associated with low-tar cigarettes?
The nicotine levels have dropped but the filter tip cannot remove all harmful substances (carbon monoxide)
- Due to low levels in cigarettes, the benefits are often reversed because users smoke more than normal to achieve the same effect
What is Emphysema?
Condition is which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness
What is Angina?
Condition marked by severe pain in the chest, often also spreading to the shoulders, arms, and neck, caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart
What is aneurysm?
An excessive localized enlargement of an artery caused by weakening of the artery wall
Is secondhand smoking dangerous?
Yes; it causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths annually in the US
Secondhand smoke exposure causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths annually in the U.S., also more lung cancer.
What is the Tobacco Control Act?
- Gave the FDA authority to regulate the manufacture distribution and marketing of tobacco products
- Restricts cigarette sales to youth and requires proof of age
What is the annual cost of tobacco use relative to healthcare costs in the US?
What neurotransmitter is released in the brain with nicotine use?
Stimulates dopamine release--reward cascade is activated with pleasurable sensations
Is cigarette smoking a risk factor for the development of cancer?
Yes, cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the lung, bladder, pancreas, cervix, esophagus, stomach, oral cavity and kidney.
- The risk of lung cancer in men who smoke two or more packs per day is 23 times greater than the risk for nonsmokers, while the risk for women is approximately 13 times greater.
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