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Chapter 5: Alkenes: Bonding, Nomenclature, and Properties

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unsaturated hydrocarbon
contains one or more C-C double or triple bonds; three most important class: alkenes, alkynes, and arenes
alkene
contain a C-C double bond
arene
a term used to classify benzene and its derivatives
aryl group (Ar-)
a group derived from arene by removal of H
phenyl group
a group derived by removing an H from benzene; abbreviated C6H5- or Ph-
index of hydrogen deficiency
the sum of the number of rings and pi bonds in a molecule
cis, trans isomerism
isomers that have the same order of attachment of their atoms but a diff. arrangement of their atoms in pace owing to the presence of either a ring or a C-C double bond
methylene
a CH2= group
vinyl
a CH2=CH- group
allyl
a CH2=CHCH2- group
cis
in cis, trans-alkene nomenclature, it refers to molecules in which the carbon atoms of the main chain are on the same side of the double bond
trans
in cis, trans-alkene nomenclature, it refers to molecules in which the carbon atoms of the main chain are on opposite sides of the double bond
E, Z system
a system to specify the configuration of groups about a C-C double bond
Z
specifies groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on the same side
E
specifies groups of higher priority on the carbons of a double bond are on opposite sides
terpene
a compound whose carbon skeleton can be divided into two or more units identical with the carbon skeleton of isoprene
isoprene rule
terpenes are formed by bonding the tail of one isoprene unit to the head of another