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Terms in this set (60)
With __________ research, interpretative description (words) rather than statistics (numbers) are used to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
__________ refers to the fact that the lives of people everywhere are intertwined closely so that one nation's problems are part of a much larger global context.
In a study of education in the United States, __________ would emphasize the daily activities and the various forms of communication between teachers and students. They would also examine the influence of peer groups and look at the reaction when school rules are either broken or followed.
LeBron has developed the hypothesis that the stress felt by single parents increases the probability of child abuse. Stress would be considered the __________ variable and child abuse would be considered the __________ variable.
In the Marxian framework, the __________ consist of those who sell their labor because they have no other way to earn a living.
In her work, sociologist Harriet Martineau was a strong advocate for _____________.
social equality and reform
Researchers in one study systematically analyzed the contents of the notes of suicide victims to determine recurring themes, such as feelings of despair or failure. They hoped to determine if any patterns could be found that would help in understanding why people might kill themselves. This is an example of __________.
Soledad develops a scale to assess job satisfaction among temporary workers. She is afraid that workers in her study will each interpret the scale items in a different way. Soledad is concerned about the __________ of her scale.
__________ states that societies develop social structures, or institutions, that persist because they play a part in helping society survive. These institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy.
Tom works on the assembly line at the local Ford automobile factory. According to Marx, Tom would be considered a member of the __________ because he does not own the means of production.
French philosopher Auguste Comte's philosophy, the belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry, became known as __________,
When designing a study, the researcher considers the __________ to be the cause of the relationship or outcome.
According to the __________ perspective, groups in society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
According to the __________ perspective, society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups.
__________ perspectives are based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system composed of interrelated parts, each of which (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society.
Sociologists obtain their knowledge of human behavior through __________, which is the process of systematically collecting information for the purpose of testing an existing theory or generating a new one.
In __________, researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others.
French sociologist Emile Durkheim coined the term __________ to refer to the patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over every person in society.
According to feminist theorists, we live in a(n) __________, a system in which men dominate women and in which things that are considered to be "male" or "masculine" are more highly valued than those considered to be "female" or "feminine."
In an experiment, the __________ contains the subjects who are exposed to an independent variable to study its effect on them.
When you meet your new supervisor for the first time, you neglect to extend your hand to her for a handshake. Which of these cultural components has your behavior violated?
Some nations, such as the United States, are referred to as __________, which means that they include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity.
In a six-square-block tract of downtown Boston, it is possible to purchase a bagel with cream cheese, dine on raw fish in a sushi bar, or grab a slice of pizza from a street vendor. This variety of food choices illustrates the process of __________.
Cooking, games, and clothing are examples of __________.
The __________ suggests that language not only expresses our thoughts and perceptions but also influences our perception of reality.
__________ are norms considered to be less important, are unwritten, and are commonly understood standards of behavior among people who share an identity.
Most sociologists are in agreement that__________________________.
language influences perception
"The Order," a white supremacist group, is opposed to most of the values shared by a majority of mainstream Americans. The Order has purchased weapons with the purpose of going after its enemies. This group is an example of a __________.
__________ perspectives are based on the assumption that social life is a continuous struggle in which members of powerful groups seek to control scarce resources and to protect their position while excluding others.
Not all norms are of equal importance; __________ are written down and involve specific punishments for violators. Laws are the most common type; they have been codified and may be enforced by sanctions.
Some nations, such as Sweden, are referred to as __________, which means that they include people who share a common culture and who are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds.
The strongest mores are referred to as __________. They are so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
__________ norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable. For example, persons making a certain amount of money are expected to file a tax return and pay any taxes they owe.
"American society stands for equal opportunity for all." This statement exemplifies __________ culture, which refers to the values and standards that people in a society profess to hold.
All parts of culture do not change at the same pace. Sociologist William Ogburn referred to this disparity as __________, which is the gap between the technical development of a society and the development of its moral and legal institutions.
Sociologists use the term __________ for a large social grouping that occupies the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
Sociologists use the word __________ to refer to what is biologically determined, and _____ for what results from the social environment.
__________ refers to the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
The __________ perspective emphasizes how people change culture through interaction with others; whereas the __________ perspective emphasizes that no single perspective can grasp or explain the complexity and diversity of the social world.
symbolic interactionist; postmodern
Members of the upper classes must be trained to appreciate and participate in high culture. This knowledge, called __________, is symbolic of being upper class, and excludes members of lower classes.
The first step in the resocialization process is often a __________, in which individuals are stripped of their former selves by being denied privacy and being assigned institutional clothing.
__________ focus on how humans design their own culture and transmit it from generation to generation through socialization. By contrast, __________ assert that nature, in the form of our genetic makeup, is a major factor in shaping human behavior.
__________ theorists emphasize that socialization reaffirms and reproduces the class structure in the next generation rather than challenging the conditions that presently exist.
The significant difference between childhood socialization and adult socialization is that ____________________________.
adult socialization involves greater freedom of choice than does childhood socialization
With regard to African American families,______________________________.
both daughters and sons are socialized toward autonomy, independence, self‑confidence, and nurturance of children
__________ is the term for the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
Agent of socialization
Which of these statements is the best explanation of the relative influence of biological and social factors in human development?
Heredity provides the basic material out of which social interaction shapes human characteristics.
Throughout childhood and adolescence, boys and girls typically are assigned different household chores and given different privileges (such as how late they may stay out at night). This is an example of __________.
__________ is the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
Which of these is not an example of a rite of passage?
a weekly religious service
According to psychologist Sigmund Freud, human development occurs in three states that reflect different levels of the personality. The __________ is the rational, reality-oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on innate pleasure-seeking drives.
Joe has decided to join a monastery. At this monastery, there will be silence for eight hours a day and fasting from food on a regular basis. Joe will experience ______ resocialization.
Sociologists use the term __________ for the specific messages and practices that teach what it means to be female or male in a specific group or society.
You are scheduled to work at the pizza parlor Sunday afternoon. Several of your friends convince you to call in sick so you can watch football with them all day, even though you really need the money. The sociological term for what you have experienced is __________.
In psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg's theory, during the __________ level, children view evil behavior as that which is likely to be punished, and good behavior as obedience and avoidance of unwanted consequences.
The term that may be used inclusively to refer to television, radio, movies, Internet, Twitter, Facebook, and video games is __________.
What is it that sets peer groups apart from schools and families as agents of socialization?
Unlike schools and families, peer groups allow children a degree of freedom from authority.
Psychologist Carol Gilligan concluded that women and men often have divergent views on_____________________ .
According to sociologist George Herbert Mead, __________ refers to the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group's point of view.
In the "nature versus nurture" debate regarding socialization, the "nature" component refers to __________.
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