84 terms

Biology Exam 4

The lymphatic system is responsible for returning blood loss from the capillaries to circulation
White blood cells kill invading cells in the body
Natural Killer Cells are a very important defense against cancer cells
Organs are body structures composed of several different tissues
Stomach acid kills bacteria
Blood platelets contain nuclei
Individuals with a BMI of over 25 are considered overweight
Increasing human body temperature is a way for the body to fight the pathogenic bacteria?
Autoimmune response is the body's immune system ability to attack their own cells
Our circulatory system transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells of the body
A single cardiac cycle is the period between the start of the right atrium contracting to the end of the left atrium contraction
Average blood volume for an adult male is 5 - 6 liters and for an adult female is 4 - 5 liters
hormone whose levels remain high when the body is suffering from inflammation and stress is:
The "fight-or-flight" response is enhanced by secretions:
known as epinephrine and norepinephrine
Blood glucose levels are regulated by:
insulin, glucagon, and cortisol
stimulates the mammary glands to produce milk.
Oxytocin has specific effects on the:
uterine wall
If you were cast upon a desert island with no fresh water to drink, which of the following would increase in your bloodstream in an effort to conserve water?
antidiuretic hormone
The pituitary gland is controlled by the:
Which gland could be called the "master gland" because of the extent of its effects on the body?
The primary purpose of the endocrine system is to:
maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
The molecule that binds oxygen contains globin proteins with four attached ____.
heme groups
Actual exchange of gases in the lungs occurs in the:
The human vocal cords are located in the:
When you swallow, the epiglottis covers the opening to the:
Food and drink are prevented from entering the respiratory passageways during swallowing by means of the:
Name the structure that is positioned in the pathway of air just before the alveoli.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the nasal cavities?
oxygenate the blood
What is the proper sequence of air flow in the human respiratory system?
nasal cavities, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
The primary function of the large intestine is the:
removal of H2O from undigested food.
helps in the digestion of fats
The digestion of fats mostly occurs in the:
Small Intestine
The first part of the small intestine is the:
Which of the following are tiny projections of the mucosal wall?
High stomach acidity:
favors protein digestion
physically and mechanically breaks up the food, aids in forming the food into a consistency suitable for swallowing, increases the surface area of food exposed to digestive enzymes, actually mixes some enzymes with the food
Which process propels the food down the esophagus into the stomach?
are muscles in circular arrangement, prevent backflow, are smooth muscles, are found at the beginning and end of the stomach.
If the motor cortex on the right side of the brain is destroyed by a stroke, what would be impaired?
movement by the left side of the body
The center of consciousness and intelligence is the:
Areas of the spinal cord appear glistening white because of:
myelin sheaths.
The autonomic subdivision consists specifically of:
parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves
The two principal divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the
somatic and autonomic systems
By definition, a nerve is:
a bundle of axons.
Which of the following would NOT be a part of the central nervous system?
spinal nerves
Clusters of cell bodies of neurons outside the central nervous system are known as:
The two main divisions of the nervous system are:
central and peripheral
A deterioration in the myelin sheaths of motor axons to the lower leg would be expected to:
slow the rate of transmission and cause lack of motor control.
Saltatory ("jumping") conduction:
involves both a quicker type of nerve conduction and the movement of impulses from node to node
The spaces that separate adjacent Schwann cells are called:
The myelin sheath:
is formed by the Schwann cell, speeds up the transmission of impulses, does not surround all nerves, extends from node to node.
Which is a junction between two neurons
Neuroglial cells:
metabolically support other neurons, form sheaths around neurons and control the rate of impulse transmission, form more than half of the volume of the brain, provide physical support.
Within a single neuron, the direction an impulse follows is
dendrite >>> cell body >>> axon
The principal job of the human nervous system is to
facilitate communication among the body systems
The sliding filament mechanism:
describes the action of the actin and myosin in a muscle cell.
During contraction:
cross bridges of muscle filaments are broken and reformed, ATP is used, muscle cells use glycogen, if poor supply of oxygen, then lead to fatigue.
During muscle contractions:
The myofibrils shorten, the actin and myosin filaments slide over each other, the actin filaments move toward the middle of the sacromere during contraction and away on relaxation, the muscle thickens.
Each muscle fiber is also called a:
muscle cell
Smooth muscle is:
involuntary and nonstriated.
Functions and properties of the axial skeleton include all of the following except ________.
supports and protects abdominopelvic organs, contains special sense organs, attachment sites for muscle used in respiration, contains joints reinforced with ligaments

E) contains tarsals and metatarsals
Which of the following is not part of the axial skeleton?
the pelvis
All of the following are functions of the bony skeleton except ______.
production of blood cells, support and protection, transmission of muscular forces by acting as levers

C) storage of vitamins
The uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide is called:
What are the contractile protein fibers of a muscle cell?
actin and myosin
The thyroid gland becomes swollen when a person has a deficiency in:
Allergies are caused by hyperactivity of the:
immune system
The endocrine and nervous system are both similar in that both:
control and connect
The most complex organ to evolve is the:
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are the:
flight or fight response
Which of the following exerts control over the anterior pituitary?
The lymphatic system is like the circulatory system in that they both:
carry fluids
The transfer of oxygen to the body's cells takes place in the_____________.
The inflammatory response involves ________________: release of chemical alarm signals
redness, swelling
Increasing human body temperature, i.e. causing a fever, assists the immune system because:
pathogenic bacteria do not grow well at high temperatures
Plasma is made up of water and
Wastes, Salt, Protien, Ions & Metabolites
Oxygen is transported by
Which of the following is carried by hemoglobin?
The arms and legs belong to what part of the skeleton?
The bone disorder where the bones are loosing minerals is called:
How many calories in a gram do we get from fat?
The deltoid muscle is located :
in the back/shoulder
The pectoralis major muscle is located:
in the chest
The basic unit of the nervous system is
The neuron