DSM- Axis Two
Personality disorders & Mental retardation - stable don't get better not going to change
DSM- Axis Three
General medical conditions- could possibly change chemistry in body. Could put "none"
DSM- Axis Four
Psychosocial/Environmental problems. Divorce, loss of loved one, homelessness. Never going to be "none"
Violation of social norms, behaves or acts. Statistical deviance IQ. Harm to self or others. Impairment, drugs or alcohol. Distress, pain.
Immediate- risk to self or others. Short term- changes in thinking. Long term- fundamental changes
Psychiatric hospital- highest level of care. Half-way house- somewhat restrictive. Outpatient- high functioning. Other treatment sites- churches & schools
1. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic. 2a. Behavioral/ Cognitive 2b. Cognitive 3. Humanistic 4. Biological 5. Sociocultural
Unconscious childhood experience. Personality is like an iceberg. First 6yrs shapes adults.
Behavioral- observing behavior, learning how to behave, reinforced conditioning, modeling, classical conditioning. Cognitive- Thinking first, ABC theory
Touchy feely school. Innate good, has potential for goodness, people are good even when they make bad choices, hope & change. Unconditional positive regard, genuine, empathy.
Focus on "the body". Medical condition, alleviate symptoms with psychological medicine. Communication & chemical issues. ECT- Shock therapy
Blames society. Two things to help, change society or accept society. Uses group model. Change society in smaller numbers.
Commonality, symptoms, & duration to have disorder. Disorders are on a continuum. When it becomes distressing and impairs.
Has three elements to it; physiological-sweat shake, emotional- fear worry apprehension, and cognitive- excited.
Obsessive Compulsive Anxiety Disorder
Become a disorder when they have no trigger. Two components; Obsessions- reoccurring thought, and Compulsions- the act.
Long lasting, shows up in late adolescence, poor insight, don't think there's anything wrong with them, think YOU are the problem, no biological cause except for one.
Paranoid Personality Disorder - Cluster A
Deeply suspicious, distrustful, needs everything in writing, hidden messages, secretive, affects more men
Schizoid Personality Disorder - Cluster A
Loner, no desire for emotional connection, affects more men
Schizotypal Personality Disorder - Cluster A
More severe, 1/3 of these people will be schizophrenic, isolate, dress strange, talk weird, Michael Jackson, see visions, aloofness, they avoid people, not good in relationships. affects more men
Narcissistic Personality Disorder - Cluster B
Love themselves in a bad way, special & demand special privileges, look at people to use them, all about them. affects more men
Histrionic Personality Disorder - Cluster B
Drama queen, pays attention to their looks, loud clothes, provocative clothing, laughs just a little louder, cries dramatically, emotional black holes, angry when needs are not met. affects more women
Borderline Personality Disorder - Cluster B
Intensity that scares people, wants emotional connection, unpredictable, afraid of abandonment, shallow self-image "splitting", cutting, hurt themselves & others, HIGHEST RATE OF SUICIDE. affects more women
Make themselves paralyzed, blind, have seizures, or mixed. Does it unconsciously.
Munchausens Syndrome By Proxy
Getting someone else sick, almost always a child, could choose elderly, likes attention they get from being hero, less than 10,000 cases reported, 1/3 from the the nursing profession. A disorder & ILLEGAL. More women
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
1/3 attempt suicide, causes severe depression, mostly women and gay men, problem is in your mind, repeat plastic surgery.
Major Depression Disorder (common cold)
Emotional- sad, remorseful, confused, hopeless Cognitive and Physical
Less severe but longer lasting, have to have symptoms for 2 years, sad, withdrawn, and pessimistic.
Depressive and periods of euphoria. Energy changes day to day. Usually shows up in early adulthood but could show up in childhood, Activated by chemical imbalance, family history, or stressors.
Less severe than bipolar, life long, less than 1% suffer, slightly more women then men, 15%-50% will develop bipolar I or II.
Split mind, affects 1% of population, in every culture, on set is 18-28 yrs old. Symptoms- Disturbances in thought(delusions), Grandeur - someone larger than life, Persecution, Somatization- organs are floating, Perception (hallucinations), Language & speech(odd tones), Behavior(Catatonia), Loss of pleasure, Social & Occupational dysfunction. Males & females same
Types of Schizophrenia
1. Paranoid 2. Disorganized 3. Catatonic 4. Undifferentiated 5. In remission- Absence of symptoms
Delusions of persecution, distrust, auditory hallucinations, cognitive functioning almost normal.
Causes of Schizophrenia
Brain abnormalities, dopamine hypothesis, biological, environmental stressors.
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Less than one month, due to trauma/stress, short term medication & therapy.
Delusions, no other symptoms of schizophrenia. i.e. Charles Manson, Elizabeth Smart's kidnappers.
Shared Psychotic Disorder
Two or more people involved, usually family. Non-psychotic people develop the irrational beliefs of the psychotic person. Can return to normal functioning. Think cults.
ALL brought on by trauma or stress. Splitting off of consciousness, loss of identity.
Selective-Recall some but not all parts of an event. Generalized- Forgets details from entire life. Continuous- Can not remember from a certain date to the present.
To flee, takes physical leave, unaware of confused about identity, can assume a new identity.
Unreal, out of body, mind-body distortions, realization it is odd, on set is adolescence or early childhood.
Multiple Personality Disorder
Several alters and a host. Blocks of amnesia. Mostly women are diagnosed. Increased since 1980. High emotion can trigger alter to show up.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Lower IQ, impulse control issues, ADD/ADHD. More likely to be sociopaths- damages frontal lobe.
Communication disorder, hard time relating to and connecting with people. 5 out of 1000 children. More boys than girls. Identifiable by 2-3yrs old. Own world.
Attention Deficit Disorder/ Hyperactive
Hard time focusing, academically. Biological/ Neurological. Moving not paying attention.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
On set middle childhood to adolescence. Defiant, don't like being told what to do.