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Chaffey College, Abnormal Psychology, Spring 2011

DSM- Axis One

Clinical Disorders - area for concern what therapist believes is wrong

DSM- Axis Two

Personality disorders & Mental retardation - stable don't get better not going to change

DSM- Axis Three

General medical conditions- could possibly change chemistry in body. Could put "none"

DSM- Axis Four

Psychosocial/Environmental problems. Divorce, loss of loved one, homelessness. Never going to be "none"

DSM- Axis Five

GAF- Global Assesment Function Score. Higher the better 1-100.


Violation of social norms, behaves or acts. Statistical deviance IQ. Harm to self or others. Impairment, drugs or alcohol. Distress, pain.

Causes of abnormality

Biological, meds & genes. Psychological. Sociocultural, societies fault.


Biological, Psychological, and Social


Stress model

DSM in use today


DSM Facts

1952, describes mental disorders, reliable, and updated on cultural norms.

Treatment Planning

Immediate- risk to self or others. Short term- changes in thinking. Long term- fundamental changes

Treatment Sites

Psychiatric hospital- highest level of care. Half-way house- somewhat restrictive. Outpatient- high functioning. Other treatment sites- churches & schools

Modality of Treatment

1. Family therapy 2. Couples therapy 3. Group therapy

Five Paradigms

1. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic. 2a. Behavioral/ Cognitive 2b. Cognitive 3. Humanistic 4. Biological 5. Sociocultural


Unconscious childhood experience. Personality is like an iceberg. First 6yrs shapes adults.


Behavioral- observing behavior, learning how to behave, reinforced conditioning, modeling, classical conditioning. Cognitive- Thinking first, ABC theory


Touchy feely school. Innate good, has potential for goodness, people are good even when they make bad choices, hope & change. Unconditional positive regard, genuine, empathy.


Focus on "the body". Medical condition, alleviate symptoms with psychological medicine. Communication & chemical issues. ECT- Shock therapy


Blames society. Two things to help, change society or accept society. Uses group model. Change society in smaller numbers.

Categorical Approach

Commonality, symptoms, & duration to have disorder. Disorders are on a continuum. When it becomes distressing and impairs.


Has three elements to it; physiological-sweat shake, emotional- fear worry apprehension, and cognitive- excited.


Phobias are irrational fears.

Social Phobias

Agoraphobia, systematic desensitization- exposure therapy.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Excessive worry, overly pessimistic, over analyze

Anxiety Disorders

Phobic disorder, Generalized Anxiety, and Panic disorder.

Obsessive Compulsive Anxiety Disorder

Become a disorder when they have no trigger. Two components; Obsessions- reoccurring thought, and Compulsions- the act.

5 types of OC Anxiety Disorder

1. Counters 2. Cleaners 3. Organizers 4. Checkers 5. Hoarders

Personality Disorder

Long lasting, shows up in late adolescence, poor insight, don't think there's anything wrong with them, think YOU are the problem, no biological cause except for one.

Personality Disorder - Cluster A

Odd, Eccentric

Personality Disorder - Cluster B

Overly emotional, unpredictable

Personality Disorder - Cluster C

Anxious, Fearful

Paranoid Personality Disorder - Cluster A

Deeply suspicious, distrustful, needs everything in writing, hidden messages, secretive, affects more men

Schizoid Personality Disorder - Cluster A

Loner, no desire for emotional connection, affects more men

Schizotypal Personality Disorder - Cluster A

More severe, 1/3 of these people will be schizophrenic, isolate, dress strange, talk weird, Michael Jackson, see visions, aloofness, they avoid people, not good in relationships. affects more men

Narcissistic Personality Disorder - Cluster B

Love themselves in a bad way, special & demand special privileges, look at people to use them, all about them. affects more men

Histrionic Personality Disorder - Cluster B

Drama queen, pays attention to their looks, loud clothes, provocative clothing, laughs just a little louder, cries dramatically, emotional black holes, angry when needs are not met. affects more women

Borderline Personality Disorder - Cluster B

Intensity that scares people, wants emotional connection, unpredictable, afraid of abandonment, shallow self-image "splitting", cutting, hurt themselves & others, HIGHEST RATE OF SUICIDE. affects more women

Antisocial Personality Disorder - Cluster B

Anti-society, doesn't follow norms.

Somatoform Disorders

Soma-body, sick all the time, learned


Believe they are sick all the time, no testable symptoms, difficult to treat

Conversion Disorder

Make themselves paralyzed, blind, have seizures, or mixed. Does it unconsciously.

Somatization Disorder

Make themselves sick - mildly. Have symptoms.


Fake so they can get a reward. hard to diagnose and treat.

Factitious Disorder

Enjoy being sick (patient role), no anxiety about being sick.

Munchausens Syndrome

Fakes being sick, looks up symptoms, more extreme (eating glass etc.)

Munchausens Syndrome By Proxy

Getting someone else sick, almost always a child, could choose elderly, likes attention they get from being hero, less than 10,000 cases reported, 1/3 from the the nursing profession. A disorder & ILLEGAL. More women

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

1/3 attempt suicide, causes severe depression, mostly women and gay men, problem is in your mind, repeat plastic surgery.

Affective Disorders

Affect- Mood , means same, Extreme high or low for 2 weeks = disorder





Major Depression Disorder (common cold)

Emotional- sad, remorseful, confused, hopeless Cognitive and Physical

Seasonal Affective Disorder

S.A.D. lack of melatonin, seasonal

Dysthymic Disorder

Less severe but longer lasting, have to have symptoms for 2 years, sad, withdrawn, and pessimistic.

Bipolar Disorder

Depressive and periods of euphoria. Energy changes day to day. Usually shows up in early adulthood but could show up in childhood, Activated by chemical imbalance, family history, or stressors.


Less severe than bipolar, life long, less than 1% suffer, slightly more women then men, 15%-50% will develop bipolar I or II.

Treatment for Mood Disorders

Cognitive/Behavioral, Humanistic, Biological- medicine or ETC


Split mind, affects 1% of population, in every culture, on set is 18-28 yrs old. Symptoms- Disturbances in thought(delusions), Grandeur - someone larger than life, Persecution, Somatization- organs are floating, Perception (hallucinations), Language & speech(odd tones), Behavior(Catatonia), Loss of pleasure, Social & Occupational dysfunction. Males & females same

Types of Schizophrenia

1. Paranoid 2. Disorganized 3. Catatonic 4. Undifferentiated 5. In remission- Absence of symptoms

Paranoid Schizophrenic

Delusions of persecution, distrust, auditory hallucinations, cognitive functioning almost normal.

Disorganized Schizophrenic

Disturbances in thought. More women.

Catatonic Schizophrenic

Odd movements, freezes.

Causes of Schizophrenia

Brain abnormalities, dopamine hypothesis, biological, environmental stressors.

Treatment or Schizophrenia

Medication-anti psychotic medication, psychotherapy.

Brief Psychotic Disorder

Less than one month, due to trauma/stress, short term medication & therapy.

Schizoaffective Disorder

Schizophrenic symptoms, symptoms of major depression or bipolar disorder.

Delusional Disorder

Delusions, no other symptoms of schizophrenia. i.e. Charles Manson, Elizabeth Smart's kidnappers.

Shared Psychotic Disorder

Two or more people involved, usually family. Non-psychotic people develop the irrational beliefs of the psychotic person. Can return to normal functioning. Think cults.

Dissociative Disorders

ALL brought on by trauma or stress. Splitting off of consciousness, loss of identity.

Dissociative Amnesia

Selective-Recall some but not all parts of an event. Generalized- Forgets details from entire life. Continuous- Can not remember from a certain date to the present.

Dissociative Fugue

To flee, takes physical leave, unaware of confused about identity, can assume a new identity.


Unreal, out of body, mind-body distortions, realization it is odd, on set is adolescence or early childhood.

Multiple Personality Disorder

Several alters and a host. Blocks of amnesia. Mostly women are diagnosed. Increased since 1980. High emotion can trigger alter to show up.

Developmentally-Related Disorders

Impact infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

Lower IQ, impulse control issues, ADD/ADHD. More likely to be sociopaths- damages frontal lobe.


A whole lot of problems at once

Autistic Disorder

Communication disorder, hard time relating to and connecting with people. 5 out of 1000 children. More boys than girls. Identifiable by 2-3yrs old. Own world.

Attention Deficit Disorder/ Hyperactive

Hard time focusing, academically. Biological/ Neurological. Moving not paying attention.

Learning Disorders

Dyslexia, Written expression, and mathematical disorder.


Reading Disorder.

Written Expression Disorder

Not being able to write what you want.

Mathematical Disorders

Math disorder. Numbers get jumbled up

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

On set middle childhood to adolescence. Defiant, don't like being told what to do.

Conduct Disorder

Under 18yrs old. Precursor to Antisocial Personality Disorder.

Impulsive-Control Disorders

Kleptomania, Pyromania, Pathological gambling, Trichotillomania, Intermitten Explosive Disorder, and Sexual impulsivity.

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