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Chapter 34 Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems

Circulatory, Respiratory, and Excretory Systems.
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Arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Valves
flaps of tissue that open and close to allow the flow of blood in one direction only. The heart's valves are located at the entrances and exits of its chambers
Heart
multi-chambered, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body
Pacemaker
small group of cardiac muscle cells in the right atrium that "set the pace" for the heart as a whole; also known as the sinoatrial node
Plasma
the liquid part of blood
Red Blood Cell
A cell in the blood that takes up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to cells elsewhere in the body
Platelet
fragment of a blood cell originating in the bone marrow that is involved in blood clotting
White Blood Cells
A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells
Atherosclerosis
a condition in which an artery wall thickens as a result of the buildup of fatty materials
Breathing
The process by which oxygen is taken in through the lungs and carbon dioxide is released out from the lungs.
External Respiration
Exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
Internal Respiration
exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body
Trachea
the windpipe
Bronchus
either of the two main branches of the trachea
Lung
either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates
Alveolus
tiny air sac at the end of a bronchiole in the lungs that provides surface area for gas exchange to occur
Kidney
either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
Urea
waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine