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23 terms

Chapter 13- Genetics and Biotechnology

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selective breeding
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms
test cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
genetic engineering
thechnology that invlolves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert exogeneous DNA
genome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
restriction enzyme
any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments. Many create sticky ends in the process.
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
recombinant DNA
genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms
plasmids
The smalll, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.
DNA ligase
an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments. used in recombinant DNA to join two DNA fragments chemically.
transformation
(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
cloning
the process that results in large numbers of identical bacteria each containing inserted DNA molecules
polymerase chain reaction
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
transgenic organisms
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
DNA fingerprinting
analysis of sections of noncoding DNA that vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals
bioinformatics
the creation and maintaining of databases of biological information
DNA microarrays
tiny microscope slides that are spotted with DNA fragmetns in orger to analyze all the expressed genes from a given organism
single nucleotide polymorphisms
unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide
haplotypes
regions of linked variations in the human genome
pharmacogenomics
the study of how genetic variations among populations affect drug response
gene therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
genomics
the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)
proteomics
the study and cataloging of the structure and funtion of proteins in the human body