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selective breeding

The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms

test cross

the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype

genetic engineering

thechnology that invlolves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert exogeneous DNA


the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism

restriction enzyme

any of the enzymes that cut nucleic acid at specific restriction sites and produce restriction fragments. Many create sticky ends in the process.

gel electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

recombinant DNA

genetically engineered DNA made by recombining fragments of DNA from different organisms


The smalll, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay sparate from the bacterial chromosomes; used in genetic engineering.

DNA ligase

an enzyme that eventually joins the sugar-phosphate backbones of the Okazaki fragments. used in recombinant DNA to join two DNA fragments chemically.


(genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA


the process that results in large numbers of identical bacteria each containing inserted DNA molecules

polymerase chain reaction

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene

transgenic organisms

term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms

DNA fingerprinting

analysis of sections of noncoding DNA that vary widely from one individual to another, in order to identify individuals


the creation and maintaining of databases of biological information

DNA microarrays

tiny microscope slides that are spotted with DNA fragmetns in orger to analyze all the expressed genes from a given organism

single nucleotide polymorphisms

unique spots where individuals differ by a single nucleotide


regions of linked variations in the human genome


the study of how genetic variations among populations affect drug response

gene therapy

The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder


the branch of genetics that studies organisms in terms of their genomes (their full DNA sequences)


the study and cataloging of the structure and funtion of proteins in the human body

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