Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (46)
the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories.
Alfred T. Mahan
- Admiral of the US Navy
- urged the govt officials to build up American naval power in order to compete with other powerful nations
- Result: US built 9 steel-hulled cruisers
A belief that free market competition would lead to the survival of the fittest
White Man's Burden
- Seward arranged for the US to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million
- had trouble persuading the house of rep's to approve
- Alaska becomes state 1959, was rich in timber, minerals, and oil.
-After Hawaiian King Kalakaua died his sister came to power with a "Hawaii for Hawaiians" agenda
-proposed removing the property owning qualifications for voting
-to prevent this business groups organized a revolt
-overthrew the queen and set up govt headed by Sandord B Dole
-a Cuban poet and journalist in exile in NY
-launched a revolution in 1895
-organized Cuban resistance against Spain, using an active guerrilla campaign and deliberately destroying property, specifically amer. owned sugar plantations
- wanted to provoke us intervention to help the rebels achieve a free Cuba
A style of writing that exaggerates the news to lure and enrage readers
De Lome Letter
-private letter written by the Spanish minister to the US
-A Cuban rebel stole it from a post office and leaked it to newspapers
-it critiqued McKinley calling him "weak" and a "crowd pleaser", minister apologized and resigned
-Americans were angry over the insult to their pres.
The Uss Maine
-was sent to Cuba to bring home any American citizens in danger from the fighting
-ship lew up in the harbor of Havana, 260+ men killed
-April 20 US declared War
-Amer fleet in the Pacific steamed to the Philippines
-commodore George Dewey gave command to open fire on Spanish fleet at Manila - destroyed all spanish fleets
-US and Spain signed cease-fire agreement ending the "splendid little war"
A volunteer cavalry under the command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt.
Treaty of Paris
-ended the Span-Amer war, Spain freed Cuba, turned over Guam and PR to us, and sold Philippines for $20mil
-legislation passed by Congress in which the US ended military rule in PR and set up a civil govt
Us supreme court ruled that the constitution did not automatically appeal to ppl in acquired territories
-negative affect of Us in Cuba
-Cuba could not make treaties that might limit its independence or permit a foreign power to control any part of its territory
-US reserved the right to intervene in Cuba
-was not to go into debt that its govt couldn't repay
-US could buy or lease land on the island for naval situations and use as refueling stations
to join or merge a territory into an existing political unit such as a country or a state
a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901
Open Door Notes
United States feared that countries with "spheres of influence" in China might choose to limit or restrict trade to and from their respective areas. John Hay wrote letters addressed to the leaders of imperialist nations proposing that the nations share their trading rights with the US, creating an open door.
Some chinese formed secret societies pledged to rid the country of "foreign devils" - killed 100s of foreigners - International soldiers from Britain, Germany, France and Japan put down rebellion
Added Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine. "Big Stick" policy. Received Nobel Peace Prize for mediation of end of Russo-Japanese war.
added to the monroe doctrine - said that the US would now use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America
-Passed by Taft
the policy of using the US govt to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business people - was often used to justify keeping European powers out of the caribbean
Moral / Missionary Diplomacy
US had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American govt if viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interests
-Pressured nations in the Western hemisphere to est. democratic govts.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
popular leader during the Mexican Revolution. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata
How did manifest destiny set the stage for American imperialism in the late 1800s
Belief of manifest destiny, Americans had already pushed the US border to the Pacific Ocean.
What factors led to the growth of imperialism in the late 1800s
3 main factors fueled American Imperialism:
- desire for military strength
- thirst for new consumer markets
- belief in cultural superiority
What social beliefs were used to justify imperialism
- Americans combined the philosophy of Social Darwanism with a belief in the racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons
- Argued that the Us had a responsibility to spread Christianity and civilization to the worlds "inferior ppls"
- Defined "civilization" according to Amer. culture
Why did some oppose imperialism
thought it was wrong for the us to rule over other nations without their consent
How are race and imperialism connected
Believed those who were white, christian, and living in the us were superior than everyone else
Why and how did the us gain control over: Alaska, Hawaii, Midway Islands, American Samoa, Puerto Rico and the Philippines? How did the us maintain control?
Alaska: gained by William Seward - Seward's folly
Midway Islands: purchased in 1867, no one lived on the islands - Americans took over
Hawaii: had been economically important to US merchants
-missionaries founded Christian schools and churches
-generations of their families became sugar planters on island, sold most of their crop to the US
-1875 US agreed to import Hawaiian sugar duty-free
-McKinley Tariff of 1890 eliminated duty-free sugar
-Hawaiian growers faced comp. in the US market, called for US to annex the islands so there'd be no duty
-Us built naval base at Pearl Harbor
-Congress proclaimed Hawaii an Amer terr. although Hawaiians never had the chance to vote
- Guam and PR turned over after Span-Amer war
- Us paid $20 mill for Philippines after Span-Amer war
What territories does the us have today
Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
What were the causes and effects of the Spanish American War
-Amer interest in Cuba: it was strategic location, had economic value bc of its sugar plantations & mills
-brutal putdown of the Cuban Revolt - concent. camps
-de Lome letter
-Treaty of Paris:
1. Cuba = independent but us has major control
2. US gained Guam, Puerto Rico, Philippines
What influence did the US have on Cuba in the early 1900s
-Amer military govt provided food and clothing
-helped farmers put land back into cultivation
-organized schools and infrastructure
-US gains Guantanamo bay
-Cuba became a US protectorate: a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power
-US maintained strong political presence to protect American business interests: the islands sugar, tobacco, mining industries, railroads, and public utilities.
How was the US policy towards China different from the US policy towards the Philippines? What can you attribute to the difference?
china-us wanted access to china, to make sure no other country had a monopoly over Chinese trade
-us wanted greater american influence in china to grow the us economy in china
philippians-us bought from spain, treaty of paris
-us saw philippines easy access to get to china strategy-location easy to take over
difference- china's larger (population people willing to fight)
What beliefs about America's industrial capital economy were reflected in the Open Door policy?
-us believes their economy depends on exports
-us believes have a right to intervene and keep foreign markets open
-us believes keeping areas open to american products; citizens and ideas was key to American survival
How did the Roosevelt Corollary shape US actions in Latin America
-extension of monroe doctrine; announced by roosevelt (1904)
-us claimed the right to protect its economic interest by means of military intervention in the affairs of western hemisphere nations
Why has Taft's foreign policy been coined "dollar diplomacy"?
called for acting in foreign affairs to achieve a financial result on behalf of the country
-us guarantees loans made by us citizens to foreign countries
-"dollar diplomacy" because its a way of keeping the us dollar strong and keeping other powers out of caribbean
what are the similarities and differences between Roos. Big Stick diplomacy, Taft's Dollar diplomacy and Wilson's Missionary Diplomacy?
How did the US become involved in the affairs of the following countries: Cuba, Japan, Russia, Panama, Dominican Republic, Mexico
us fought with cuba (spanish american war)
-supported cuban independence from spain
-japan and european nations competed for influence over china
-japan asked us to help negotiate peace agreement with russia when russia declared war
- roosevelt helped the two nations come to an agreement, winning him the noble peace prize
-russia declares war on japan, causing the japanese to ask us for help
-us negotiates a peace treaty between the nations
-us wanted to build canal in panama
-us helped panama gain independence from columbia
-trouble repaying loans to european nations
-appeals to us for help
early 1900's mexico and us got along
-many americans owned many mexican infrastructure
-series of rebellions lead to unstable government
-us intervened in mexico and sent in the us marines
-us proposes a new government and american troops withdraw
What were some of the "benefits" of US imperialism for other countries? Negatives?
-us provides food, medical help, clothing
-us devolved infrastructure
-help get land,improve sanitation eliminate disease
-mean, bully tactics
-government punishments/guerrilla tactics including forced living conditions that killed many
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
American Imperialism Test Review
u.s. history: american imperialism quiz review
2.2 Monroe Doctrine and Manifest Destiny
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Ch 20 - The US Looks Overseas 1853-1915
US History Chapter 18 Notes
US History Chapter 18 Notes
Chapters 19-20-21 Review
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
PR Final Exam Study Guide
HST - Final Exam
PR Quiz Ch. 8 (#2)
PR Chapter 8 Quiz