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Biotic materials

Parts of soil that were once living

Abiotic materials

Parts of soil that were never living


They come from parent material (rock) and become part of the soil when it is broken down into smaller particles

Organic Materials

Decomposing plants and animals


Organic material that holds nutrients and is important for plants


A combination of 1/3 clay, 1/3 silt, 1/3 sand- best type of soil


When the soil is permentantly frozen and waterlogged so it impossible to grow things


What is necessary for plants to have around their roots and is created by worms, insects and small animals


This dissolves nutrients for plants and is necessary for the weathering of rocks

Top Soil

The horizon that contains humus, organic materials, living organisms, sand, silt and clay


The Horizon that contains little organic material, iron and silica


The horizon that contains parent material that could have been deposited by glaciers etc.


The biggest particle size that water does not pass through but it can hold a lot of water. It is hard to work in the spring because it may be waterlogged


The particle size in between sand and clay


The smallest particle size taht water flows through quite easily, so useless for plants. Some is needed for weathering of bedrock.


Nutrients are washed away from the topsoil by water when there is a lot of precipitation. Often found in the Pacific maritime


Moisture is drawn to the surface by plants and evaporates, leaving minerals behind. Occurs in dry climates such as the Prairies


A combination of water, air, organic material and minerals that plants grow in

Tree Line

The area where trees stop growing because of climate and soil


A tree with needles that can grow in cooler climates (softwood)


A tree with flat leaves that needs a warmer climate to grow in (hard wood)


An area that has the same type of plants, climate, animals, human activities, landforms etc.

Mixedwood plains

Ecozone with plains and rolling hills. Short, cool winters and long mild summers, normal precipitation. Coniferous and deciduous but not much natural vegetation now. A big population with manufacturing, agriculture and recreation

Atlantic Maritime

Hills and costal plains. Long, mild winters and warm summers.Both trees with leached soils. There is forestry, agriculture, fishing, tourism and urbanization. (ecozone)

Boreal Plains

Level and gently rolling plains. Long cold winters, short, dry summers. Coniferous, some deciduous and marshes. Rich soisl in forests so there is farming, forestry, tourism and oil and gas development. Flin Flon!(ecozone)

Boreal Shield

Plains and low hills. Long winters, short summers. Coniferous and deciduous trees with leached soils, bare rock and swampy areas. There is forestry, mining, tourism and trapping. (ecozone)


Flat to rolling plains. Long, cold movies and warm summers. Short grass in drier areas and long grass and some trees in wetter areas but not much natural vegetation. There are rich grassland soilsso there is agriculture, urbanization and oil and gas development. Edmonton, Calgary. (ecozone)

Montane Cordillera

Mountains, plains and plateaus. Temperature, precipitation, vegetion and soil varies greatly depending on elevation and leeward/windward sides of mountain. Human activities are forestry, agriculture, and tourism. (ecozone)

Pacific Maritime

Mountains with small areas of plains. Mild winters, cool summers. Varying vegetation and soils b/c of mountains. Activities are forestry, agriculture, fish processing and recreation (ecozone)

Taiga Cordillera

Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Tundra and areas of scattered forests with poor soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping forestry and tourism. Population: 370 (ecozone)

Taiga Shield

Plains and hills of the Shield. Moderately long, cold winters, short cool summeres. Thin, highly leached soils and bare rock.Coniferous trees with tourism, trapping, mining and hunting. (ecozone)

Boreal Cordillera

Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Mainly coniferous trees with varying soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping, mining, tourism and forestry (ecozone)

Taiga Plains

Interior plains and hills. Long, cold winters and short, dry, cool summers. Mainly coniferous trees but some open fields. Permafrost in the North, scattered in the south with different poor soils. Activities are hunting, trapping, touirsm, oil/gas and agriculture (ecozone)

Hudson Plains

Low-lying swampy plains. Moderately long, cold winteres and short warm summers. Tundra but dense forest in the south. Some permafrost- bad soils. Human Activities are hunting, trapping and recreation (ecozone)

Southern Arctic

Plains and hills of Canadian shield. Long winters and short, cool, dry summers. Vegetation is shrubs b/c of tundra and permafrost. Activites are hunting, trapping, tourism and minerals. (ecozone)

Northern Arctic

Plains and uplands. Long winteres and short summers. Tundra with ground hugging plants. The activities are hunting, tourism and some mining. (ecozone)

Arctic Cordillera

Innuitian mountains. There are long winters and short summers. There is no growing season or vegetation . Permafrost, terrible soils. Activities are hunting and tourism. (ecozone)

Natural vegetation

Plants that grow without human interference


The vegetation region past the tree line that has only mosses, lichens etc. Cold, short growing season b/c of permafrost and soil is waterlogged with little humus (vegetation)

Boreal and Taiga forest

Below tree line is the largest region. It has coniferous trees and some deciduous. More precipitation that tundra so there is leaching b/c of shallow layer of humus and acidic soil because of pine needles. (vegetation)

Mixed Forest

Important for lumbering- deciduous and coniferous trees. It has warm summers, cool winters and regular precipitation. There is humus because of leaves so leaching is not a problem (good for farming) (vegetation)

Deciduous Forest

This vegetation region is almost gone because of agriculture and development. Deciduous trees with long, hot summers and mild winters with plentiful precip. There is more humus and less acidic that mixed forest. most fertile (vegetation)


Some trees but mostly grasslands. It is warm and dry so calcification so bad for most crops except for wheat. Not much natural vegetation remains but a lot of humus because of grasslands. (vegetation)

Cordilleran vegetation

The vegetation region with a lot of variation in climate and soil. (vegetation)

West Coast Forest

Lush forests with huge trees. Mild climate with a lot of heavy rainfall. Soil has a lot of humus b/c of organic materials (vegetation)


Industries that involve Natural resources and are Essential to Canada's economy


Industries that involve manufacturing, processing/refining and transforming natural resources into products


Industries that involve services such as teaching, gov't.


Industries that deal with ideas eg. University Professor *disputed over whether it exists

Basic industry

An industry that brings money into the local economy. It creates jobs and economic activities. Eg. Farming, oil sands

Non-basic industry

An industry that recycles money in the local economy. Eg. Restaurant owners, stores

Sustained yield management

Knowing how much you can harvest without depleting the source and damaging the environment


An industry that accounts for about 1.4% of the total GDP and plays a large role in trade. Forests are often cut down for this and soil can be depleted of its nutrients.


An industry and accounts for $81 billion a year. We export ½ of these products. It can destroy ecosystems in not done properly. Pesticides are harmful to everything in the ecosystem so they are controversial. It has affected people mainly in BC


An industry that is found mainly in Alberta and sasktchwan for oil and gas but minerals found in Ontario an Quebec. We export 80% of this and it accounts for 83 billion. Some towns are completely dependent on it


Canada's oldest industry that accounts for only 0.1% of GDP. We export ½ of the fish that we import so it's good for the balance of trade


Fishing boats that are from smaller families


Fishing boats from companies "trawlers"


The general reason for the fishing crisis


The study of population

Immigration rate

The amount of people coming to a country per year for every thousand people (immigrants / population x 1000)

Natural increase rate

A combination of birth rate and death rate to show how much a population is growing (birth rate -death rate) Often given as a percentage

Birth rate

The number of births per year per thousand people (births per year / population x 1000)

Death rate

The number of deaths per year for every thousand people (deaths per year / population x 1000)

Emigration rate

The amount of people leaving a country per thousand people (emigrants / population x 1000)

Net migration rate

The amount the population is growing or decreasing because of immigration and emigration (immigration rate - emigration rate)

Population growth rate

A measurement of how much a population is growing with natural increase and migration (natural increase rate + net migration rate)

Doubling time

The amount of time it would take for a population to double (divide 70 by the population growth rate)

Population pyramid

A chart that shows the population of cohorts based on age and gender in a country.


the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate and death rate are high


the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low. (b/c of medical knowledge)


The stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low but is growing more slowly. (good economy)


the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate decreases and the death rate is stable, so the population begins to even out


the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate and death rate are low.


A type of factor that makes people want to leave a country


a factor that makes people want to come to a country

Point system

a system that determines the most eligible people to come into Canada


the amount of points necessary to qualify under the points system


AKA an economic immigrant- a skilled worker or business immigrant that needs to qualify under the points system


a type of immigrant that is being reunited with family eg. Spouse, dependent children, grandparents. They must be sponsored by a relative in Canada


An immigrant who fears cruel or inhumane treatment in their home country


descendants of Canada's (and the America's) original inhabitants

First nation

an Aboriginal group whose members wish to be treated as a distinct group based on a shared culture and history

Indian, Inuit, metis

the 3 groups the government divides aboriginals into

Economic base

Aboriginals signed treaties to maintain an ______ ____


aboriginals signed treaties to_______ their own affairs


The government signed treaties to obtain _____ occupied by aboriginals


the government signed treaties to ___________ Aboriginals into Canadian culture


In exchange for land, aboriginals received ______

Land ownership

Royal Proclamation:_____-__________ rights of the Aboriginal people were to be respected


Royal Proclamation: Aboriginals were to receive fair ________ for land they gave up

Hunt and fish

Because there is no self-gov't, Aboriginals cannot decide when to ____ and _____ because of gov't regulations


On reserves, there are often not good _________ so they cannot form an economic base

Comprehensive claim

A treaty signed with a group that has never had one before- deals with land ownership, self-government and control over resources

Specific Claim

A claim for when the terms of an existing treaty have not been met


________ countries have the highest level of development and service is dominant. 20% of world's population.

Newly Industrializing Countries

A country moving from developing to developed. Manufacturing is taking over from agriculture and the service industry is growing


_______ countries have many primary industries and some manufacturing. GDP is low because most production is for own use. The gov't can't provide social services because of lack of $$ They receive foreign aid from developed countries

Human development index

measures a country's average achievements in 3 basic aspects of Human Development-
Longevity, knowledge and standard of living

Foreign aid

financial support supplied by developed countries to developing countries

Population density

The concentration of people in an area

Population distribution

The patterns formed by human settlements


Canadian International Development Agency: organizes foreign aid


North American Free Trade Agreement- with the states and Mexico--> good for Canadian economy


United Nations formed in 1945 to promote world peace!! WOO HOO!

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