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They come from parent material (rock) and become part of the soil when it is broken down into smaller particles
What is necessary for plants to have around their roots and is created by worms, insects and small animals
The biggest particle size that water does not pass through but it can hold a lot of water. It is hard to work in the spring because it may be waterlogged
The smallest particle size taht water flows through quite easily, so useless for plants. Some is needed for weathering of bedrock.
Nutrients are washed away from the topsoil by water when there is a lot of precipitation. Often found in the Pacific maritime
Moisture is drawn to the surface by plants and evaporates, leaving minerals behind. Occurs in dry climates such as the Prairies
An area that has the same type of plants, climate, animals, human activities, landforms etc.
Ecozone with plains and rolling hills. Short, cool winters and long mild summers, normal precipitation. Coniferous and deciduous but not much natural vegetation now. A big population with manufacturing, agriculture and recreation
Hills and costal plains. Long, mild winters and warm summers.Both trees with leached soils. There is forestry, agriculture, fishing, tourism and urbanization. (ecozone)
Level and gently rolling plains. Long cold winters, short, dry summers. Coniferous, some deciduous and marshes. Rich soisl in forests so there is farming, forestry, tourism and oil and gas development. Flin Flon!(ecozone)
Plains and low hills. Long winters, short summers. Coniferous and deciduous trees with leached soils, bare rock and swampy areas. There is forestry, mining, tourism and trapping. (ecozone)
Flat to rolling plains. Long, cold movies and warm summers. Short grass in drier areas and long grass and some trees in wetter areas but not much natural vegetation. There are rich grassland soilsso there is agriculture, urbanization and oil and gas development. Edmonton, Calgary. (ecozone)
Mountains, plains and plateaus. Temperature, precipitation, vegetion and soil varies greatly depending on elevation and leeward/windward sides of mountain. Human activities are forestry, agriculture, and tourism. (ecozone)
Mountains with small areas of plains. Mild winters, cool summers. Varying vegetation and soils b/c of mountains. Activities are forestry, agriculture, fish processing and recreation (ecozone)
Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Tundra and areas of scattered forests with poor soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping forestry and tourism. Population: 370 (ecozone)
Plains and hills of the Shield. Moderately long, cold winters, short cool summeres. Thin, highly leached soils and bare rock.Coniferous trees with tourism, trapping, mining and hunting. (ecozone)
Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Mainly coniferous trees with varying soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping, mining, tourism and forestry (ecozone)
Interior plains and hills. Long, cold winters and short, dry, cool summers. Mainly coniferous trees but some open fields. Permafrost in the North, scattered in the south with different poor soils. Activities are hunting, trapping, touirsm, oil/gas and agriculture (ecozone)
Low-lying swampy plains. Moderately long, cold winteres and short warm summers. Tundra but dense forest in the south. Some permafrost- bad soils. Human Activities are hunting, trapping and recreation (ecozone)
Plains and hills of Canadian shield. Long winters and short, cool, dry summers. Vegetation is shrubs b/c of tundra and permafrost. Activites are hunting, trapping, tourism and minerals. (ecozone)
Plains and uplands. Long winteres and short summers. Tundra with ground hugging plants. The activities are hunting, tourism and some mining. (ecozone)
Innuitian mountains. There are long winters and short summers. There is no growing season or vegetation . Permafrost, terrible soils. Activities are hunting and tourism. (ecozone)
The vegetation region past the tree line that has only mosses, lichens etc. Cold, short growing season b/c of permafrost and soil is waterlogged with little humus (vegetation)
Boreal and Taiga forest
Below tree line is the largest region. It has coniferous trees and some deciduous. More precipitation that tundra so there is leaching b/c of shallow layer of humus and acidic soil because of pine needles. (vegetation)
Important for lumbering- deciduous and coniferous trees. It has warm summers, cool winters and regular precipitation. There is humus because of leaves so leaching is not a problem (good for farming) (vegetation)
This vegetation region is almost gone because of agriculture and development. Deciduous trees with long, hot summers and mild winters with plentiful precip. There is more humus and less acidic that mixed forest. most fertile (vegetation)
Some trees but mostly grasslands. It is warm and dry so calcification so bad for most crops except for wheat. Not much natural vegetation remains but a lot of humus because of grasslands. (vegetation)
The vegetation region with a lot of variation in climate and soil. (vegetation)
West Coast Forest
Lush forests with huge trees. Mild climate with a lot of heavy rainfall. Soil has a lot of humus b/c of organic materials (vegetation)
Industries that involve manufacturing, processing/refining and transforming natural resources into products
Industries that deal with ideas eg. University Professor *disputed over whether it exists
An industry that brings money into the local economy. It creates jobs and economic activities. Eg. Farming, oil sands
An industry that recycles money in the local economy. Eg. Restaurant owners, stores
Sustained yield management
Knowing how much you can harvest without depleting the source and damaging the environment
An industry that accounts for about 1.4% of the total GDP and plays a large role in trade. Forests are often cut down for this and soil can be depleted of its nutrients.
An industry and accounts for $81 billion a year. We export ½ of these products. It can destroy ecosystems in not done properly. Pesticides are harmful to everything in the ecosystem so they are controversial. It has affected people mainly in BC
An industry that is found mainly in Alberta and sasktchwan for oil and gas but minerals found in Ontario an Quebec. We export 80% of this and it accounts for 83 billion. Some towns are completely dependent on it
Canada's oldest industry that accounts for only 0.1% of GDP. We export ½ of the fish that we import so it's good for the balance of trade
The amount of people coming to a country per year for every thousand people (immigrants / population x 1000)
Natural increase rate
A combination of birth rate and death rate to show how much a population is growing (birth rate -death rate) Often given as a percentage
The number of deaths per year for every thousand people (deaths per year / population x 1000)
The amount of people leaving a country per thousand people (emigrants / population x 1000)
Net migration rate
The amount the population is growing or decreasing because of immigration and emigration (immigration rate - emigration rate)
Population growth rate
A measurement of how much a population is growing with natural increase and migration (natural increase rate + net migration rate)
The amount of time it would take for a population to double (divide 70 by the population growth rate)
A chart that shows the population of cohorts based on age and gender in a country.
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low. (b/c of medical knowledge)
The stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low but is growing more slowly. (good economy)
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate decreases and the death rate is stable, so the population begins to even out
AKA an economic immigrant- a skilled worker or business immigrant that needs to qualify under the points system
a type of immigrant that is being reunited with family eg. Spouse, dependent children, grandparents. They must be sponsored by a relative in Canada
an Aboriginal group whose members wish to be treated as a distinct group based on a shared culture and history
Royal Proclamation:_____-__________ rights of the Aboriginal people were to be respected
Hunt and fish
Because there is no self-gov't, Aboriginals cannot decide when to ____ and _____ because of gov't regulations
A treaty signed with a group that has never had one before- deals with land ownership, self-government and control over resources
________ countries have the highest level of development and service is dominant. 20% of world's population.
Newly Industrializing Countries
A country moving from developing to developed. Manufacturing is taking over from agriculture and the service industry is growing
_______ countries have many primary industries and some manufacturing. GDP is low because most production is for own use. The gov't can't provide social services because of lack of $$ They receive foreign aid from developed countries
Human development index
measures a country's average achievements in 3 basic aspects of Human Development-
Longevity, knowledge and standard of living
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