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105 terms

Geo Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Biotic materials
Parts of soil that were once living
Abiotic materials
Parts of soil that were never living
Minerals
They come from parent material (rock) and become part of the soil when it is broken down into smaller particles
Organic Materials
Decomposing plants and animals
Humus
Organic material that holds nutrients and is important for plants
LOAM
A combination of 1/3 clay, 1/3 silt, 1/3 sand- best type of soil
Permafrost
When the soil is permentantly frozen and waterlogged so it impossible to grow things
Air
What is necessary for plants to have around their roots and is created by worms, insects and small animals
Moisture
This dissolves nutrients for plants and is necessary for the weathering of rocks
Top Soil
The horizon that contains humus, organic materials, living organisms, sand, silt and clay
Subsoil
The Horizon that contains little organic material, iron and silica
Bedrock
The horizon that contains parent material that could have been deposited by glaciers etc.
Clay
The biggest particle size that water does not pass through but it can hold a lot of water. It is hard to work in the spring because it may be waterlogged
Silt
The particle size in between sand and clay
Sand
The smallest particle size taht water flows through quite easily, so useless for plants. Some is needed for weathering of bedrock.
Leaching
Nutrients are washed away from the topsoil by water when there is a lot of precipitation. Often found in the Pacific maritime
Calcification
Moisture is drawn to the surface by plants and evaporates, leaving minerals behind. Occurs in dry climates such as the Prairies
Soil
A combination of water, air, organic material and minerals that plants grow in
Tree Line
The area where trees stop growing because of climate and soil
Coniferous
A tree with needles that can grow in cooler climates (softwood)
Deciduous
A tree with flat leaves that needs a warmer climate to grow in (hard wood)
Ecozone
An area that has the same type of plants, climate, animals, human activities, landforms etc.
Mixedwood plains
Ecozone with plains and rolling hills. Short, cool winters and long mild summers, normal precipitation. Coniferous and deciduous but not much natural vegetation now. A big population with manufacturing, agriculture and recreation
Atlantic Maritime
Hills and costal plains. Long, mild winters and warm summers.Both trees with leached soils. There is forestry, agriculture, fishing, tourism and urbanization. (ecozone)
Boreal Plains
Level and gently rolling plains. Long cold winters, short, dry summers. Coniferous, some deciduous and marshes. Rich soisl in forests so there is farming, forestry, tourism and oil and gas development. Flin Flon!(ecozone)
Boreal Shield
Plains and low hills. Long winters, short summers. Coniferous and deciduous trees with leached soils, bare rock and swampy areas. There is forestry, mining, tourism and trapping. (ecozone)
Prairie
Flat to rolling plains. Long, cold movies and warm summers. Short grass in drier areas and long grass and some trees in wetter areas but not much natural vegetation. There are rich grassland soilsso there is agriculture, urbanization and oil and gas development. Edmonton, Calgary. (ecozone)
Montane Cordillera
Mountains, plains and plateaus. Temperature, precipitation, vegetion and soil varies greatly depending on elevation and leeward/windward sides of mountain. Human activities are forestry, agriculture, and tourism. (ecozone)
Pacific Maritime
Mountains with small areas of plains. Mild winters, cool summers. Varying vegetation and soils b/c of mountains. Activities are forestry, agriculture, fish processing and recreation (ecozone)
Taiga Cordillera
Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Tundra and areas of scattered forests with poor soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping forestry and tourism. Population: 370 (ecozone)
Taiga Shield
Plains and hills of the Shield. Moderately long, cold winters, short cool summeres. Thin, highly leached soils and bare rock.Coniferous trees with tourism, trapping, mining and hunting. (ecozone)
Boreal Cordillera
Mountainous. Long, cold winters and short, cool, dry summers. Mainly coniferous trees with varying soils. Human activities are hunting, trapping, mining, tourism and forestry (ecozone)
Taiga Plains
Interior plains and hills. Long, cold winters and short, dry, cool summers. Mainly coniferous trees but some open fields. Permafrost in the North, scattered in the south with different poor soils. Activities are hunting, trapping, touirsm, oil/gas and agriculture (ecozone)
Hudson Plains
Low-lying swampy plains. Moderately long, cold winteres and short warm summers. Tundra but dense forest in the south. Some permafrost- bad soils. Human Activities are hunting, trapping and recreation (ecozone)
Southern Arctic
Plains and hills of Canadian shield. Long winters and short, cool, dry summers. Vegetation is shrubs b/c of tundra and permafrost. Activites are hunting, trapping, tourism and minerals. (ecozone)
Northern Arctic
Plains and uplands. Long winteres and short summers. Tundra with ground hugging plants. The activities are hunting, tourism and some mining. (ecozone)
Arctic Cordillera
Innuitian mountains. There are long winters and short summers. There is no growing season or vegetation . Permafrost, terrible soils. Activities are hunting and tourism. (ecozone)
Natural vegetation
Plants that grow without human interference
Tundra
The vegetation region past the tree line that has only mosses, lichens etc. Cold, short growing season b/c of permafrost and soil is waterlogged with little humus (vegetation)
Boreal and Taiga forest
Below tree line is the largest region. It has coniferous trees and some deciduous. More precipitation that tundra so there is leaching b/c of shallow layer of humus and acidic soil because of pine needles. (vegetation)
Mixed Forest
Important for lumbering- deciduous and coniferous trees. It has warm summers, cool winters and regular precipitation. There is humus because of leaves so leaching is not a problem (good for farming) (vegetation)
Deciduous Forest
This vegetation region is almost gone because of agriculture and development. Deciduous trees with long, hot summers and mild winters with plentiful precip. There is more humus and less acidic that mixed forest. most fertile (vegetation)
Grasslands
Some trees but mostly grasslands. It is warm and dry so calcification so bad for most crops except for wheat. Not much natural vegetation remains but a lot of humus because of grasslands. (vegetation)
Cordilleran vegetation
The vegetation region with a lot of variation in climate and soil. (vegetation)
West Coast Forest
Lush forests with huge trees. Mild climate with a lot of heavy rainfall. Soil has a lot of humus b/c of organic materials (vegetation)
Primary
Industries that involve Natural resources and are Essential to Canada's economy
Secondary
Industries that involve manufacturing, processing/refining and transforming natural resources into products
Tertiary
Industries that involve services such as teaching, gov't.
Quaternary
Industries that deal with ideas eg. University Professor *disputed over whether it exists
Basic industry
An industry that brings money into the local economy. It creates jobs and economic activities. Eg. Farming, oil sands
Non-basic industry
An industry that recycles money in the local economy. Eg. Restaurant owners, stores
Sustained yield management
Knowing how much you can harvest without depleting the source and damaging the environment
Agriculture
An industry that accounts for about 1.4% of the total GDP and plays a large role in trade. Forests are often cut down for this and soil can be depleted of its nutrients.
Forestry
An industry and accounts for $81 billion a year. We export ½ of these products. It can destroy ecosystems in not done properly. Pesticides are harmful to everything in the ecosystem so they are controversial. It has affected people mainly in BC
Mining
An industry that is found mainly in Alberta and sasktchwan for oil and gas but minerals found in Ontario an Quebec. We export 80% of this and it accounts for 83 billion. Some towns are completely dependent on it
Fishing
Canada's oldest industry that accounts for only 0.1% of GDP. We export ½ of the fish that we import so it's good for the balance of trade
Inshore
Fishing boats that are from smaller families
Offshore
Fishing boats from companies "trawlers"
Overfishing
The general reason for the fishing crisis
Demography
The study of population
Immigration rate
The amount of people coming to a country per year for every thousand people (immigrants / population x 1000)
Natural increase rate
A combination of birth rate and death rate to show how much a population is growing (birth rate -death rate) Often given as a percentage
Birth rate
The number of births per year per thousand people (births per year / population x 1000)
Death rate
The number of deaths per year for every thousand people (deaths per year / population x 1000)
Emigration rate
The amount of people leaving a country per thousand people (emigrants / population x 1000)
Net migration rate
The amount the population is growing or decreasing because of immigration and emigration (immigration rate - emigration rate)
Population growth rate
A measurement of how much a population is growing with natural increase and migration (natural increase rate + net migration rate)
Doubling time
The amount of time it would take for a population to double (divide 70 by the population growth rate)
Population pyramid
A chart that shows the population of cohorts based on age and gender in a country.
one
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate and death rate are high
two
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low. (b/c of medical knowledge)
three
The stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate is high and the death rate is low but is growing more slowly. (good economy)
Four
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate decreases and the death rate is stable, so the population begins to even out
Five
the stage of the demographic transition model where the birth rate and death rate are low.
Push
A type of factor that makes people want to leave a country
Pull
a factor that makes people want to come to a country
Point system
a system that determines the most eligible people to come into Canada
67
the amount of points necessary to qualify under the points system
Independent
AKA an economic immigrant- a skilled worker or business immigrant that needs to qualify under the points system
Family
a type of immigrant that is being reunited with family eg. Spouse, dependent children, grandparents. They must be sponsored by a relative in Canada
Refugee
An immigrant who fears cruel or inhumane treatment in their home country
Aboriginal
descendants of Canada's (and the America's) original inhabitants
First nation
an Aboriginal group whose members wish to be treated as a distinct group based on a shared culture and history
Indian, Inuit, metis
the 3 groups the government divides aboriginals into
Economic base
Aboriginals signed treaties to maintain an ______ ____
Control
aboriginals signed treaties to_______ their own affairs
Land
The government signed treaties to obtain _____ occupied by aboriginals
Assimilate
the government signed treaties to ___________ Aboriginals into Canadian culture
Reserves
In exchange for land, aboriginals received ______
Land ownership
Royal Proclamation:_____-__________ rights of the Aboriginal people were to be respected
Payment
Royal Proclamation: Aboriginals were to receive fair ________ for land they gave up
Hunt and fish
Because there is no self-gov't, Aboriginals cannot decide when to ____ and _____ because of gov't regulations
Resources
On reserves, there are often not good _________ so they cannot form an economic base
Comprehensive claim
A treaty signed with a group that has never had one before- deals with land ownership, self-government and control over resources
Specific Claim
A claim for when the terms of an existing treaty have not been met
Developed
________ countries have the highest level of development and service is dominant. 20% of world's population.
Newly Industrializing Countries
A country moving from developing to developed. Manufacturing is taking over from agriculture and the service industry is growing
Developing
_______ countries have many primary industries and some manufacturing. GDP is low because most production is for own use. The gov't can't provide social services because of lack of $$ They receive foreign aid from developed countries
Human development index
measures a country's average achievements in 3 basic aspects of Human Development-
Longevity, knowledge and standard of living
Foreign aid
financial support supplied by developed countries to developing countries
Population density
The concentration of people in an area
Population distribution
The patterns formed by human settlements
CIDA
Canadian International Development Agency: organizes foreign aid
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement- with the states and Mexico--> good for Canadian economy
UN
United Nations formed in 1945 to promote world peace!! WOO HOO!