Art History Midterm

Paleolithic, Venus of Willendorf, Willendorf Austria, 28000-25000 BCE
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Ancient Egypt, Great Pyramids, Gizeh Egypt, 2551-2472 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this monument?Ancient Egypt, Menkaura and a Queen, Gizeh Egypt, 2490-2472 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this statue?Ancient Egypt, Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt, Saqqara Egypt, 2450-2350 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this relief?Ancient Egypt, Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Deir el-Bahri Egypt, 1473-1458 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this monument?Ancient Greece, Bull-leaping, Crete Greece, 1500 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this fresco?Ancient Greece, Lion gate, Mycenae Greece, 1300-1250 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this monument?Ancient Greece, Tholos tomb, Mycenae Greece, 1300-1250 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this tomb?Ancient Greece, Kouros, Attica Greece, 600 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this figure?Ancient Greece, Exekias, Achilles, and Ajax playing a dice game, Vulci Italy, 540-530 BCEwhat is the age, artist, name, date, and location of this vase?Ancient Greece, Charioteer, Delphi Greece, 470 BCEwhat is the age, name, date, and location of this statue?Ancient Greece, Polykleitos, Doryphoros, 450-440 BCEwhat is the age, artist, name, and date of this statue?Ancient Greece, Parthenon, Athens Greece, 447-432 BCEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?Ancient Greece, Lysippos, Apoxymenos, 330 BCEwhat is the age, artist, name, and date of this statue?Etruscan, Apollo, Veii Italy, 510-500 BCEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this statue?Roman Empire, Augustus, Primaporta Italy, 20 BCEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this statue?Roman Empire, Colosseum, Rome Italy, 70-80 CEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?Roman Empire, Spoils of Jerusalem on the Arch of Titus, Rome Italy, 81 CEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?Roman Empire, Column of Trajan, Rome Italy, 112 CEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?Roman Empire, Pantheon, Rome Italy, 118-125 CEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?Roman Empire, Arch of Constantine, Rome Italy, 312-315 CEwhat is the age, name, location, and date of this monument?it's one of the oldest sculptures discovered to date. Possibly a fertility charm or the depiction of the female form in general.what is the significance of Venus of WillendorfThis is one of the most well known paleolithic caves in France because of its exceptional quality, size, and sophistication. It is one of the first documented cases of composite view.what is the significance of the Hall of Bulls?One of three dozen plaster statuettes that were ritually buried in Ain Ghazal.what is the significance of the Neolithic Human Figure?the most architecturally sophisticated prehistoric stone circle in the world.what is the significance of Stonehenge?It's the best preserved Mesopotamian temple and home of the biblical Abraham. Also the center of the theocracy and dedicated to the sky god Anu.what is the significance of the White Temple?The worship of Inanna by the king of Uruk dominates the decoration of the vase. The top illustrates how the cultic duties of the Mesopotamian king as chief priest of the goddess, put him in a position to be responsible for and proprietor of, the agricultural wealth of the city-state.what is the significance of the Warka Vase?The oldest extant life-size, hollow cast metal sculpture. The artist balanced naturalistic and abstract patterning by carving out distinct facial features such as the nose and lips but patterned the hair, beard, and mustache.what is the significance of the Head of an Akkadian ruler?Funerary stele dedicated to Babylon's most powerful king. This stele is important because it abandoned the register format and experimented with foreshortening and other methods of depth.what is the significance of the Stele of Hammurabi?The lamassu guarded the gate to Sargon II's palace and served to ward off the King's enemies. Significant because sculptors had to find a way of showing a complete picture of the lamassu, so they are carved partially in the round and also in high relief. Also significant because it's another case of early artists providing a conceptual representation of an animal.what is the significance of the Lamassu?The first pyramid built in Egypt. Important because it was an architectural marvel that had never been attempted before. Set the stage for pyramid building in the future.what is the significance of the Stepped pyramid of Djoser?Oldest of the seven wonders of the world. Each pyramid is a mortuary temple dedicated to the kings Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure, respectively.what is the significance of the Great Pyramids?Ti is larger than his human counterparts which indicates his power and superiority.what is the significance of Ti watching a hippopotamus hunt?Represent royal power, serenity, and ethereal beauty. Unique because the woman, possibly a royal, is the same height as Menkaura and takes the same stride forward as he does. Usually, the woman is shorter and is depicted with her feet together.what is the significance of Menkaura and a Queen?Hatshepsut was the first great female monarch in history. This is the first great tribute to a woman's achievements in the history of art.what is the significance of the Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut?The most famous fresco from the palace at Knossos. The Minoan women and men have stylized bodies with narrow waists as well as their skin color varies with gender. The powerful energy exerted by the bull is demonstrated by the elongated figure with extended legs.what is the significance of Bull-leaping?The largest sculpture in prehistoric Aegean. The whole design harmonizes dignity, strength, and scale. Took the Egyptian and Mesopotamian concept of placing large guardian figures at the entrances of palaces.what is the significance of Lion Gate?The treasury of Atreus was the largest tomb in the ancient world for almost 1500 years. Elite families buried their dead outside of the city walls in these beehive shaped structures.what is the significance of the Tholos tomb?Egyptian style; rigidly frontal with hands clenched and left leg forward. Differed with the Egyptian style in that the figure is liberated from the stone block and in that the kouroi are nude. Represents the idea of youth.what is the significance of Kouros?Known for the dramatic tension, coordination of figural poses with vase shaped, and intricacy of the engrained patterns of the cloaks. Crafted by the greatest master of black-figure painting Exekias. Lots of new techniques tried but the same antique conventions remain such as composite view. The gravity and tension displayed in this painting are extremely rare for archaic art.what is the significance of Achilles and Ajax playing a dice game?Rare bronze statue. The charioteer stands in an almost archaic pose, but the turn of the head and feet in opposite directions as well as a slight twist at the waist are in keeping with the early classical manner. The fold in the charioteer's garb emphasizes the verticality and calm of the figure and is adjacent to the flutes of a greek column.what is the significance of the Charioteer?The artist Polykleitos sought to portray the perfect man and impose order on human movement. He achieved his goals through harmonic proportions and a system of cross balancing for all parts of the body. This is the culmination of the evolution in Greek statuary.what is the significance of Doryphoros?The ideal solution to the Greek architect's quest for perfect proportions in Doric temple design. Suggests that Athens was the leader of all the Greeks by combining Doric and Ionic features.what is the significance of the Parthenon?The artist Lysippos introduced a new canon of proportions and nervous energy to his statues. He also broke down the dominance of the frontal view and encouraged looking at his statues from multiple angles. The figure breaks out of the shallow rectangular box that defined the boundaries of earlier statues.what is the significance of Apoxyomenos?The finest surviving Etruscan rooftop statue. Distinctly Etruscan in that he is clothed figure, vigorous striding motion, gesticulating arms, and animated face.what is the significance of the statue of Apollo?Modelled after Classical Greek statues which depicted leaders as perpetually youthful. Head emulates the Polykleitan youth's head in it's overall shape. Augustus is not nude, which was rare for Greek portraiture. His garb contained political messages as well.what is the significance of the statue of Augustus?Vespasian reclaimed the land that Nero had taken to build his own private villa and gave it back to the people by constructing the Colosseum atop of the land. The colosseum's facade mixes Roman arches and Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian engaged columns.what is the significance of the Colosseum?Commemorates Titus's conquest of Judaea. Gives the illusion of movement as the parade emerges from the left background into the center foreground. Rejected the classical low-relief in favor of deep carving which produced strong shadows.what is the significance of the Spoils of Jerusalem on the Arch of Titus?Significant because it tells the story of the Dacian wars in 150 episodes and is commemorative.what is the significance of the Column of Trajan?The Pantheon's traditional facade masked its revolutionary cylindrical drum and its huge hemispherical dome. The interior symbolized both the orb of the earth and the vault of the heavens. Also the Ancient world's largest dome. Everything about the Pantheon was revolutionary.what is the significance of the Pantheon?Much of the sculptural decoration of Constantine's arch came from monuments of Trajan, Hadrian, and Marcus Aurelius. Sculptors recut the heads of the earlier emperors to substitute Constantine's features. The constantian frieze is less a narrative of action than a picture of actors frozen in time. The rigid formality reflects the new values that would come to dominate medieval art. The arch of Constantine is the quintessential monument of its era, exhibiting a respect for the past while rejecting the norms of classical design.what is the significance of the Arch of Constantine?where part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of that figure is shown frontallyComposite Viewconstructed by placing blocks in horizontal courses and then cantilevering them inward until they meet, leaving an opening in the middle that lightens the weight the lintel carries.Corbelled Archa simple construction method using a horizontal member supported at its ends by two vertical columnsPost-and-lintel systemair-dried brick, made of a mixture of loam, mud, sand and water mixed with a binding material such as rice husks or strawMudbrickrectangular stepped tower, sometimes surmounted by a temple.Zigguratone or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for religious purposes.votive offeringcarved, molded, or stamped so as to stand out from the surface.reliefa technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall.frescoa type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and with clay mortar or no use of mortar.cyclopean masonrya space above a lintel in megalithic architecture to relieve the weight of the masonryrelieving trianglea vault-like construction method, which uses architectural technique of corbelling to span a space or void in a structurecorbelled vaultan asymmetrical arrangement of the human figure in which the line of the arms and shoulders contrasts with, while balancing, those of the hips and legs.contrappostoan upright pillar, typically cylindrical and made of stone or concrete, supporting an entablature, arch, or other structure or standing alone as a monument.columna slight convex curve in the shaft of a column, introduced to correct the visual illusion of concavity produced by a straight shaft.entasiscrowning member of a columncapitalthe bottom part of a columnbasea square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze.metopea tablet in a Doric frieze with three vertical groovestriglypha broad horizontal band of sculpted or painted decoration, especially on a wall near the ceiling.friezea horizontal, continuous lintel on a classical building supported by columns or a wall, comprising the architrave, frieze, and cornice.entablaturethe triangular upper part of the front of a building in classical style, typically surmounting a portico of columns.pedimentcharacterized by a plain, unadorned column capital and a column that rests directly on the stylobate of the temple without a base.doric orderEvery column is made of a base, a shaft, and the volute on top. In the Ionic order, the volute is shaped like scrolls or spiralsionic ordera row of columns surrounding a space within a building such as a court or internal garden or edging a veranda or porch.peristylea solid mass of masonry serving as a foundation for a wall or row of columns.stereobatethe inner area of an ancient temple, especially one housing the hidden cult image in a Greek or Roman temple.cellaa tall ancient Greek or Roman jar with two handles and a narrow neck.amphorafigural and ornamental motifs were applied with a slip that turned black during firing, while the background was left the color of the clayblack figure paintingThe style is characterized by drawn red figures and a painted black backgroundred figure paintinga column embedded in a wall and partly projecting from the surface of the wallengaged columnan arch formed in a continuous curve; characteristic of Roman architecture.round archa central stone at the summit of an arch, locking the whole together.keystonean architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total designbarrel vaultproduced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaultsgroin vaultA small window that is circular or oval in shapeoculusportray or show (an object or view) as closer than it is or as having less depth or distance, as an effect of perspective or the angle of vision.foreshorteningcreated by showing most of the animal's body in profile, but turning a portion of the animal's head so that it seems to point directly at the viewer.twisted perspectivea large vase in Ancient Greece, used for the dilution of wine with water.kratera decorative border constructed from a continuous line, shaped into a repeated motif.meander

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