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Respiratory Tract Infections and Neoplasms
Terms in this set (49)
Respiratory infections can occur where?
Upper Respiratory tract (nose, oropharynx, and larynx) Lower Respiratory tract (lower airways & lungs), OR Upper and lower airways
Viruses are the most common cause of...?
Respiratory tract infections
What part of respiratory system is affected by the common cold, what type of infection?
URI viral infection
The major reservoir of common cold is...?
The most common portals of the common cold are...?
Nasal membranes and Eyes
How long does the common cold last, how long is the incubation period?
7 days, 2 days
Clinical Manifestations of the common cold include:
Excessive nasal secretion production, eye tearing, mucous membranes of URT are red and swollen, postnasal drippings, sore throat, hoarseness, headache, generalized malaise.
Severe manifestations of the common cold are?
Chills, fever. exhaustion
Inflammation of the nasal sinuses is called..?
Does rhinosinusitus affect upper or lower respiratory tract?
Rhinosinusitus commonly develops with what? What does this cause?
Viral URI or allergic rhinitis; mucosal, swelling, obstruction, and impairs clearance.
Facial pain, headache, purulent nasal discharge, decreased sense of smell, fever, unilateral maxillary. pain, teeth pain, and common cold symptoms preceding are all manifestations of...?
True or False: Influenza is more contagious than bacterial infections?
Influenza is transmitted by
inhalation of nuclei droplets
What is the incubation period of influenza; when is it infectious period?
1-4 days; day prior to appearance of symptoms
Uncomplicated upper respiratory infection (rhinotracheitis), viral pneumonia, and respiratory viral infection are caused by? What can respiratory viral infection lead to?
Influenza; bacterial infection
When influenza spreads to lower respiratory tract, what is caused?
Severe shedding of bronchial and alveolar cells down to a single cell-thick basal layer.
Which type of influenza is similar to common cold?
How is the symptom of a runny nose in influenza pathologized?
The virus targets and kills mucous-secreting, ciliated, and other epithelial cells. Leads to holes between basal cells, as a result extracellular fluid escapes.
In Influenza A and B there is an abrupt onset of what?
Fever and chills, rigors, malaise, muscle aching, headache, profuse watery nasal discharge nonproductive cough and sore throat.
Where is inflammation with pneumonia? What are they? Upper or lower respiratory tract?
Parenychymal structures of the lungs;
alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles;
What are the 4 types of pneumonia
Community-acquired, Hospital-acquired, Acute bacterial (typical), Primary atypical
When pneumonia is diagnosed in under 48 hours, it is classified as...?
Diagnosed AT LEAST 48 hours after admission to the hospital is what kind of pneumonia?
Community acquired is most commonly caused by? Bacterial, viral, or both?
Those needing airway instrumentation, immunocompromised, or those with chronic lung disease are most at risk for?
Hospital acquired pneumonia
Productive cough, Pleuritic pain
Unusual breathing sounds
Increase HR/RR (hypoxemia)
Aching all over (Activity intolerance w/ SOB)
Why are older adults and those with debilitating disease most at risk for dying of acute bacterial (typical) pneumonia?
They've lost their cough reflex, there is damage to ciliated epithelium lining the respiratory tract or impaired immune defenses- predisposes to colonization and infection of lower respiratory system.
What is the most common cause of bacterial (typical) pneumonia
4 stages of.bacterial (atypical) pneumonia
Outpouring of leukocytes and RBCs "red hepatization"
Macrophages ingest debris "Gray hepatization"
Bronchopneumonia caused by Legionella Pneumophilia is called? How is it transmitted? When do symptoms begin?
Legionnaire disease; person to person; 2-10 days after infection
Most common cause of primary atypical pneumonia is? What is it characterized by?
patchy involvement of the lungs
What is the primary organ affected in TB? Can it affect other organs?
Who is most at risk for TB?
Foreign born individuals, homeless shelters, correctional facilities, drug treatment facilities
primary TB develops in previously...?
With TB what kind of lesions form, what do they contain, what is this known as, and where do lesions form?
Gray-white circumsized granulomatous lesions, contains the tubercle bacilli modified macrophages, and other immune cells.
Located in subplueral area of upper segments of lower lobes and lower segments of upper lobes (AKA- towards the middle)
How is TB transmitted? Why does this mode of transmission help the microbe spread?
Cell-mediated immune response that confers resistance to organism and development of hypersensitivity to the antigens
What undergoes soft caseous necrosis during TB?
Central portion of the Ghon focus;
The combination of the primary lung lesions and the lymph node granulomas is...?
With primary atypical pneumonia if cough is present what is it like?
Dry, hacking and non-productive
When pneumococcal pneumonia progresses, how does it manifest?
Sputum is blood tinged, rust colored or purulent, and pleuritic pain is present.
In latent TB how is spread limited?
T lymphocytes and macrophages surround the organism in a granuloma and limit spread.
Early Symptoms of progressive primary TB (active)?
Low-grade fevers, fatigue and weight loss, cough initially dry, but becomes productive w/ purulent and sometimes blood-tinged sputum.
Later stage of progressive TB manifests...?
Dyspnea, orthopnea, night sweats, anemia. rales on lung auscultation.
What causes more than 80% of lung cancer cases? What is another risk factor?
Categories of lung cancer are...? Subtypes?
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma
Nonspecific symptoms of lung cancer?
Anorexia and weight loss
Airway irritation and obstruction in lung cancer leads to...?
Chronic cough, Shortness of breath, and wheezing
Why does hemoptysis occur in lung cancer? What is it?
It occurs when lesions erode blood vessels;
blood in the sputum
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