Four Essential Features of A State

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Population
The most obvious essential feature of a state is its people. "States where the population shares a general political and social consensus (an agreement) about basic beliefs, have the most stable governments."
Territory
A state or country or city has certain boundaries. Conflicts can arise between states and countries over where borders should be placed. Boundaries can also be changed due to war, purchase or territory, or negotiations between governments.
Sovereignty
"The key characteristic of a state. Political sovereignty means the state has absolute supreme authority within the boundary of its territory. It can make laws, shape foreign policy, and make its own actions without the approval of a higher authority.
Government
A government "is the institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on its citizens."