How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

38 terms

Biology Vocab Lap 5 & 6

STUDY
PLAY
histone
helpsmaintain the shape of a chromosome
and aid in the tight packing of DNA
nonhistone protiens
controlsthe activity of specific regions of DNA.
chromatid
chromatid is one-half of a chromosome
centromere
is the area of a chromatid that holds
the two chromatids in a chromosome together
sex chromosone
is a chromosome that determines
the sex of an organism
autosome
is any other chromosome
diploid cell
has both chromosomes in each
homologous pair
haploid cell
has only one
chromosome in each homologous pair.
telophase
it is a phase of mitosis,
and the other three are phases of interphase
interphase
it is a phase of the cell
cycle, and the other three are phases of mitosis.
binary fission
it pertains to
prokaryotes, and the other three pertain to
eukaryotes.
spindle fibers
it pertains to
nuclear division, and the other three pertain to
cytoplasmic division.
Vesicles
vesicles are organelles,
some of which participate in cytoplasmic division,
and the other three are involved in nuclear division.
oogenesis
Oogenesis is the production of mature egg cells,
or ova.
tetrad
A tetrad is a pair of homologous chromosomes lined
up next to each other during prophase I of meiosis.
independent assortment
Independent assortment is the random separation
of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I
polar bodies
Polar bodies are haploid offspring cells produced
by meiosis during oogenesis
purine
A purine is a nitrogenous base with two rings of
carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may include
adenine or guanine.
purine
A pyrimidine is a nitrogenous base with one ring
of carbon and nitrogen atoms. Examples may
include cytosine or thymine.
complementary base-pair
A complementary base-pair is a pair of nitrogenous
bases connected to each other by hydrogen
bonds. Examples may include adenine-thymine
and cytosine-guanine.
nitrogenous base
A nitrogenous base is a base in DNA containing
nitrogen and carbon.
replication fork
A replication fork is a Y-shaped region that results
when the two strands of DNA separate during
replication.
helicase
A helicase is an enzyme that separates the strands
of DNA during replication.
Semi-conservative replication
Semi-conservative replication produces a new
DNA molecule with one original strand and one
new strand.
codon
is a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides
that codes for a specific amino acid or a start or
stop signal.
Translation
Translation is the process of assembling polypeptides
anticodon
anticodon is a sequence of three tRNA
nucleotides that pairs with a specific codon.
F1 generation
The F1 generation consists of the offspring of a
cross between two parents
F2 generation
F2 generation consists
of the offspring of a cross between two individuals
in the same F1 generation.
dominant
dominant factor is one that masks the effect of
another factor for the same characteristic
recessive
a recessive
factor is one whose effect is masked by another
factor for the same characteristic.
self-pollination
Self-pollination occurs between flowers on the same
plant.
cross-pollination
cross-pollination occurs between flowers on
different plants
complete dominance
kind of dominance where in the dominant allele completley makes the effect of the recessive allele in heterozygos condition
incomplete dominance
is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completley dominate over the other allele
codominance
refers to a relationship between two alleles of a gene
germ-cell mutation
A germ-cell mutation occurs in one of an organism's
gametes.
somatic-cell mutation
somatic-cell mutation occurs in one of
the other cells in an organism's body.