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Chapter 3 - Culture

STUDY
PLAY
What is Culture? (df)
values, beliefs, behaviour & material objects that constitute a people's way of life
edward t. hall
proxemics
proxemics
how close people can be to you
territoriality
people use markers to demarkate their turf
intimate distance
0 - 1 feet
four proxemic categories
intimate, personal, social, public
personal distance
1 - 4 feet
social distance
4 - 12 feet
public distance
12+ feet
Lipset
differences between canadian and american values
canadians compared to americans (4)
trust gov't, respect for authority, less individualistic, less likely to volunteer
americans compared to canadians (4)
distruct of gov't, less respect for authority, individualistic, more likely to volunteer
Lipset: why are americans different from canadians? (2)
revolution, religion (protestant vs. catholic)
criticism of lipset
is difference only between quebec & deep south?
five components of culture
symbols, language, values, beliefs, norms
value
abstract idea as standard of behavior
belief
specific statement held to be true
prescriptive norms
what one should do
proscriptive norms
what one shouldn't do
folkway
informal custom; etiquette
mores
extremely strongly hold norm
taboo
strong mores
Sumner
folkways
Murdock
all cultures have categories, but specifics vary; sport/basketball vs. sport/gladiator dueling
two basis for cultural diversity
natural basis, social basis
natural basis for cultural diversity
japan is isolated --> homogeneity
social basis for cultural diversity
multiculturalism in canada
cultural materialism
cultural beliefs are a rational adaptation to material conditions; india and cow love
conflict theory on mother teresa
she doesn't challenge status quo in west
s.i. on culture
culture is the some of interactions, so people create culture
gynocentric
see world from female perspective
barbie discussion
s.f. says barbie defines roles and middle class and consumerism, c.f. agrees but says that's bad, s.i. is focused on how girls play with barbie dolls
value
abstract standard of goodness
culture (txt df)
knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities aquired by man as a member of society
three characteristics of cultural elements
shared by whole social group, older pass down, shapes behaviour
sanction
what happens when you break a norm
role
cluster of behavioral expectations
berdache
two-spirited
mead on gender roles
studied three cultures with different gender roles
ritzer
mcdonaldsization of society
watson
mcdonalds is adapted to chinese culture
cultural universals
lack of matriarchy maybe universal? incest was in egypt
cultural integration
all parts of culture are interrelated; e.g. axes with steel heads
ethnocentrism
ignore cultural perspective
eurocentrism
european perspective assumed universal
androcentrism
male bias
Malinowski & magic
magic reduces anxiety of ocean fishing
Davis
sexual restrictions keep males under control
foucault
by naming homosexuality, you can control it and hospitalize it
culture
sum of cultural elements
subculture
possess additional distinct cultural elements