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Child Development Chapter 3
Terms in this set (51)
Jacob's biological parents were both musicians, and he was born with a(n) __________ that included exceptional musical ability, but because he was never exposed to musical instruments or instruction when he was adopted, he never developed his musical ability.
The physical, behavioral, and psychological features of a person that are the result of the interaction between one's genes and the environment are part of the __________.
Most physical and psychological traits are _____.
A consequence of polygenic inheritance
Sadie carries the recessive gene for hemophilia, a disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. If Sadie had two children, a boy and a girl, and passed the recessive gene for the disorder to both children, which of her children would develop hemophilia if the father does not have hemophilia himself?
Which of the following statements regarding the X and Y chromosomes is true?
All eggs in the mother contain an X chromosome.
The heritability of intelligence _____ from childhood to adulthood.
The higher the concordance rate, ______.
The more similar two persons are.
Girls typically begin menstruating between ages 11 to 16, toward the lower end of this range under healthy conditions and toward the higher end when nutrition is insufficient. This is an example of __________.
In recent decades in Western countries, there has been little change in average height, indicating that the populations of these countries have reached the upper boundary of __________ for height.
Their reaction range
A female infant from the Hamer tribe in Ethiopia was adopted by an American couple who described themselves as "non-athletes." The tribe is known for having members who are exceptionally tall. Once the girl started school, she asked to play in the after-school basketball program, tried out for the team in middle school and high school, and eventually went on to earn a scholarship to play in college. This is an example of __________.
As a result of the process of crossing over __________.
the genetic material that originated from the mother and father is rearranged
Upon reaching puberty, males begin producing __________ sperm a day.
The __________ is formed when the ovum and sperm unite and fertilization takes place.
Fertilization can take place only __________.
in the first 24 hours after the ovum enters the fallopian tube
In general, __________ have the highest rates of DZ twins.
After fertilization, the first 2 weeks of pregnancy is called the __________.
The blastocyst forms during the __________.
The __________ form from the outer layer of the embryonic disk.
Skin, hair, nails, sensory organs, and nervous system
During the __________ period of prenatal development nearly all the major organs are formed.
Maddox, a baby born 6 weeks prematurely, is at heightened risk of not surviving due to the immaturity of his __________.
Your sister is pregnant. She has always been health conscious and exercises regularly. She is planning on engaging in aerobic exercise by continuing to go to her exercise classes. According to most physicians, she should __________.
exercise regularly as she will stimulate the circulatory system and muscles
The most common teratogen worldwide is __________.
Marie is a heavy drinker and managed to stop drinking for most of her pregnancy. If she drank alcohol during the critical period, also known as the __________ period, her baby would be most at risk of structural damage.
It is January 1989 in Beijing, China, and Huang and Jiao have just married. They want to conceive a child as soon as possible, as most newly married Chinese couples do. Considering it is the middle of winter, and fruits and vegetables are not readily available, what important nutrient in Huang's prenatal diet is likely to be missing, potentially causing her child to be born with spina bifida?
Melinda is a healthy woman who just found out she is pregnant and went for her first prenatal visit. Which of the following pieces of advice is she most likely to receive from her physician?
Eat foods with sufficient iodine.
Although 47-year-old Julie is elated at being pregnant, she is also worried about having a child with __________ because the risk increases dramatically after age 45.
Which of the following statements regarding people with Down syndrome is true?
They age faster than other people.
There are two main types of chromosomal disorders, those resulting in Down syndrome and those that __________.
Involve the sex chromosomes
Which of the following prenatal monitoring techniques is safest in terms of risk of miscarriage?
Carissa has a family history of Down syndrome and is in her 5th week of pregnancy. She decides that she would like to find out as early as possible whether her unborn child has Down syndrome or any other genetic abnormality. What test is she likely to get?
Chorionic villus sampling
Infertility is diagnosed after at least __________.
Which of the following statements regarding cultural implications of infertility is true?
In Cameroon, if a couple cannot conceive a child, the husband's family may encourage him to obtain a divorce and seek the return of the "bridewealth" his family paid to the wife's family when they married.
Among women, infertility is most often caused by problems in __________.
There are many causes for infertility in women, among them, the most common is __________.
What is the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF)?
A woman takes fertility drugs to stimulate follicle production. Then, a doctor harvests the ova, fertilizes them, and places the zygotes back in the uterus.
For hair texture, curly is the dominant allele and straight hair is the recessive allele. Arabella has straight hair. Her mother has curly hair and her father has straight hair. Which of the following is a possibility for the combination of alleles she might have inherited from her parents?
a straight allele from her curly-haired mother and a straight allele from her straight-haired father
__________ are at greater risk for X-linked recessive disorders because they have __________.
Males; only one X chromosome
Dr. Meyers is a behavioral geneticist. She is investigating whether school achievement has a genetic component. Which of the following scenarios would indicate to her that there is a large genetic component?
Monozygotic twins show greater similarities in school achievement than dizygotic twins.
Which of the following is the best illustration of epigenetics?
Females who are under-nourished start menstruating later than females who are properly nourished.
Ever since he was little, Zachary has been fascinated with what his stepmother is cooking. As a toddler, he asked her lots of questions about it. As a young child, he wanted to help her by mixing and measuring. Now that he's in 3rd grade, his stepmother has agreed to sign him up for cooking classes. What type of effect is this?
evocative genotype → environment effects
__________ sperm is/are produced through a process called __________, and each sperm cell contains __________ chromosomes.
Four; meiosis; 23
Where does fertilization take place?
What does the placenta do?
It protects the mother from waste produced by the baby.
Which body system develops first and fastest in the embryo?
Your pregnant friend is eager to tell you about how she feels the fetus kick often and even hiccup. Without asking, you know that you friend is probably at what stage in her pregnancy?
Middle to end of second trimester
Your senator has asked you what services the country can provide to ensure babies are born healthier. Based on your knowledge from this chapter, what do you tell her?
The country should make high-quality prenatal care with skilled health care workers available to all pregnant women.
Debralee is expecting. Which of the following nutritional deficiencies will she likely not have to worry about?
Approximately 1 in __________ live births is a child with a chromosomal disorder.
A couple comes to your genetic counseling clinic concerned that they might have a second child affected with the same X-linked recessive disease displayed by their son. Neither of the parents displays the trait. What do you tell them?
They have a chance of having another affected son.
Shonda and Trent have been a couple for eight years, and they are now excited to take the leap into parenthood together. They have been unable to attain pregnancy on their own, which is referred to as __________.
Which of the following is a main source of infertility in men?
Too few sperm produced
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