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Terms in this set (148)
the ductus venous exhibits a different and unique occlusion pattern to that of the ligaments arteriosum
the ductus arteriosus conducts pulmonary blood supply directly into the dorsal aorta
all of the following are paired sets of tributary veins draining directly into the paired venous sinuses during human development except:
the postcardinal veins
"once development is nearing completion, the right atrium receives blood from just 2 sources: the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava"
"only the atrium is separated into 2 chambers, while the ventricle remains as a single chamber"
"in humans, the heart initially develops from the coalescence of":
paired endocardial tubes
the helical nature of the aortic trunk septum is not related to the transposition of the aortic channels leaving the right and left ventricles
"the foramen oval possess a flap-valve which allows blood to pass from the left atrium to the right, but not in reverse"
"birds, mammals, and crocodilians are unique from other vertebrates in that venous and arterial blood are not mixed before being pumped out of the heart"
"mirroring the original number of gill-slits and bars, how many aortic arches do primitive fishes possess?"
"In concert, these two things work to increase blood pressure in the left atrium of the newborn infant."
shut-down of placental circulation and the opening of the lung capillaries with the first breath
the heart undergoes a positional rotation such that the left ventricle is more anterior than the right ventricle
there are only three sets of paired tributary veins of the venous sinuses
"as a result of greater ectodermal growth, the future pericardial cavity is repositioned ventral to the future heart"
the vitelline veins drain the yolk sac
branchiostoma lack hearts
"in adult humans, the right half of the heart sends blood to the body"
"after separation of the cranial aortic trunk, the right ventricle only empties into the last (sixth, or pulmonary) aortic arch"
"after the 7th week of development, an anastromic channel develops linking the right and left precardinal veins"
"in utero, which of the following structures is a passage way between the right and left atria"
the ductus arteriosus becomes the occulded vestigial cord called the ligaments arteriosum
the umbilical veins drain the yolk sac
"during the fourth week of development, the primitive heart tube develops a waistlike constriction, dividing the heart into":
a cranial and caudal set of chambers, the caudal atrium and the craniad ventricle, a chamber which receives venous blood and one which pumps blood to the aortic arches. (all of the above)
"after the child is delivered, the fetal blood vessels in the placenta contract, returning up too 100mL of blood to the infant"
which of the following best describes the pulmonary circuit in the fetus:
the lungs are small and collapsed and therefore cannot receive blood, the lungs are full of amniotic fluid and therefore cannot oxygenate blood, the right atrial blood is already the most highly oxygenated blood in the fetus. (all of the above)
"in mammals, the separation of the pulmonary circuit from the rest of the arterial system is accomplished via":
a median septum that partitions the heart into left and right halves
which of the following statements describes the walls of the atria?
they are thinner and weaker than those of the ventricles because the ventricles do most of the work of the heart, atria do not have thick myocardial walls because all they do is shove blood forward into the ventricles, the atria are smooth walled because they grow mostly by incorporating attached veins into their walls, and the parts of the atria that do develop from embryonic myocardium are covered with muscular ridges called pectinate muscles (all of the above)
which is/are true of the lymphatic system?
the lymphatic system carries tissue fluids which leak into the interstitial spaces, lymph capillaries coalesce to form larger collection vessels called lymphatics, the lymphatic system has valves compelling flow in one direction, cancer tends to spread on lymphatic channels. (all of the above)
this structure is a longitudinal anastomosis supplying the first two intercostal spaces
the limbus of the fossa ovalis helps guide blood flow from the left atrium into the right
this is the inner layer of the pericardial cavity which secretes a thin, lubricating fluid:
blood from the lower limbs, pelvis, and abdomen returns to the heart via:
inferior vena cava
crista terminalis marks an important boundary in the right atrium
the characteristic "lub-dup" of the heart beat sound is created by:
the closing of the atrioventricular valves followed by the closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves
the sinu-atrial node is the pacemaker of the heart
the fibrous pericardium is tightly adhered to the diaphragm, sternum, and great vessels of the heart
this disease is caused by general blockage of lymphatic flow:
which of the following aortic gill arches becomes the adult arch of the aorta?
left arch number 4
this structure partitions the thoracic and abdominal celomata:
unlike the rest of the body, the coronary sinus drains into the left atrium
developmentally, the coronary sinus is part of the heart and not one of the vitelline veins
the papillary muscles of the heart:
also contract during ventricular contraction, arise ventricular walls and are attached to the atrioventricular cusps via chord tendineae, are trabecular carneae (all of the above)
the beating heart is not intrinsically coordinated and requires anatomic input to effectively regulate the heartbeat
each of the ventricles have their own auricles
the internal thoracic and epigastric arteries are ventral longitudinal anastomoses
the descending aorta is on the right side of the body, and the vernae cavae are on the left side
which intersegmental arteries become the main arteries to the limbs?
the ventral rami of the 7th and 24th intersegmentals
the atrioventricular valves both shut when the ventricles contract
the three major openings into the right atrium all lie within the smooth, vein derived area of the atrium's back wall
the aortic and pulmonary openings are each guarded by a 4-cuspid valve
the proximal end of the right coronary artery is drained by a 2 or 3 anterior cardiac veins
the azygos vein develops from the left postcardial vein
the internal thoracic and epigastric arteries are ventral longitudinal anastomoses
the brachiocephalic trunk is the common stem of the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries
which of the following represents the closed off foramen oval in the adult heart?
aortic arches numbers 1, 2, and 4 all disappear during development
which of the following describes the flow of blood in and out of the heart:
the atria receive blood from the lungs and body, the left ventricle pumps blood to the body, the right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs
which of the following statements is true regarding the right and left coronary arteries?
both arise from the base of the aorta, both possess circumflex branches which sit in the groove between the atria and ventricles, both possess inter ventricular branches which lie atop the boundary between the two (all of the above)
another name for the right atrioventricular valve is the bicuspid valve
this area of the body is unusual because of the gross differences in the arterial and venous pathways
near the heart
all of the following arise from the descending aorta except:
paired intersegmental arteries to the somite derivatives, paired mesonephric arteries to the embryonic urogenital system writ large, unpaired midline branches to the gut (all of the above)
the fibrous structure of the heart partitions the contracting wave between the atria and ventricles
the "spinal cord" of the heart's imitation nervous system is?
typically, veins and arteries do not share similar pathways, each is independent
which are path elements of sympathetic impulses to the thoracic viscera?
begin in the thoracic segments of the spinal cord between T1 and L2, enter the sympathetic trunk via the white rami communicates, ascend into the cervical region of the sympathetic trunk and synapse in the cervical sympathetic ganglia, pass down into the thorax from the cervical sympathetic ganglia via thoracic organ nerves (e.g cardiac nerves), (all of the above)
which of the following structures makes up the dome peak of the diaphragm?
the central tendon of the diaphragm
the dorsal surface of the diaphragm slopes steeply to its attachments in the vertebrae
the fibers of the atrial plexuses arise more caudally than the fibers of the coronary plexuses
unconscious breathing is the result of respiratory centers of the brain taking over voluntary control of the respiratory muscles
collectively, how many secondary bronchi do the right and left lungs have?
the diaphragm is attached to the top 3 lumbar vertebrae, in addition to other structures
the arterial branches of the lungs generally run in front of (ventral to) the respiratory tree
when a reptile inhales which direction do their ribs swing?
towards the head
the phrenic nerve passes posterior to the root of the lung
the superior pulmonary vein enters the root of the lung anterior to the primary bronchus
like the lobes of the lung, the bronchopulmonary segments are also separated by folds of visceral pleura
all land-dwelling animals have a muscular diaphragm
the trachea is dorsal to the esophagus
during quiet breathing, what is the most important respiratory muscle in adult humans?
which of the following structures pass through or around the diaphragm?
inferior vena cava, aorta, esophagus (all of the above)
which of the following are parts of the parietal pleura?
diaphragmatic pleura, costal pleura, mediastinal pleura, cupola of the pleura (all of the above)
the diaphragm does not receive any autonomic innervation
how many coelomic cavities do adult mammals typically have?
the visceral pleura slips between the lobes of the lung
the phrenic nerve aries from which segmental spinal nerves?
which muscle passes behind the medial arcuate ligament of the diaphragm?
the heart is not affixed to the central tendon of the diaphragm
the smooth muscles of the trachea and bronchi receive some innervation from which of the following?
via parasympathetic fibers from the vagus nerve
the cardiac plexuses (composed of sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers) lies anterior to the heart
which body segments is the diaphragm derived from?
in mammals, the celomic cavity is partitioned by the diaphragm
the left recurrent laryngeal nerve passes around the ligaments arteriosum
without a diaphragm, the pump action of the ribcage is less efficient because gut contents take up some of the space meant for lung expansion
the inferior pulmonary vein enters the root of the lung anterior to the pulmonary bronchus
lymph from the superficial tissues drains into the tracheobronchial lymph nodes
the left lung tends to be smaller than the right because of the heart's encroachment
which of the following is found in the mediastinum
the heart, the great vessels of the heart, the trachea and esophagus, the thymus gland (or its remnants) (all of the above)
what is the name of the coelomic space surrounding each lung?
when at rest, the apex of the central tendon of the diaphragm lies at what vertebral levels?
T8 to T9
what structure forms the diaphragm's edge which arches over the aorta?
median arcuate ligament
the visceral pleura is in direct contact with the surface of the lungs
thick, more muscular, do not possess valves, almost all carry oxygenated blood
thin, less muscular, some contain valves, almost all carry deoxygenated blood
What are the 2 sets of smooth muscles controlled by?
autonomic nervous system
what direction does veins flow blood?
from the heart
what direction does arteries flow blood?
to the heart
circulates blood throughout the body
renourishes and deoxygenates blood (in fetal life only)
rexoygenates blood (not in humans)
filters blood leaving the gut
filters and regulates blood chemistry throughout the body
increased H2O temp=
decreased H2O movement, and decreased dissolved O2
Brings blood to lower body (descending aorta)
anterior cardinal vein
internal jugulars and superior vena cava, (posterior= inferior vena cava)
area of intraembryonic mesoderm in front of the developing head which folds down into the thoracic region
the septum transversum becomes
ventral aorta is the
2 fused post cardinal veins
what aortic arches contribute something meaningful to the adult vasculature?
3 and 4
aortic arch 3 and 4 become
common carotid arteries and brachiocephalic trunk
what does the heart start as
a tube with 4 tubes merging into it
allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium (in fetal life)
passes blood from the pulmonary trunk to the aortic arch (in fetal life)
What does the foramen ovale become?
What does the ductus arteriosus become?
path of a drop of blood (to lungs)
from the body to Right atrium (deoxygenated blood) to tricuspid valve to right ventricle to pulmonary valve (oxygenated blood) to the lungs
path of a drop of blood (to body)
from the lungs to Left atrium to mitral valve to left ventricle to aortic valve to the body
what is the top of the heart called?
what are the vessels embedded in the heart?
where does blood come in and out?
the crown only
main vein that drains the heart itself and drains into the right atrium to bring the deoxygenated blood back into the cycle
outgrowth of the gut tube, splits into primary bronchial buds
parietal and viscera pleura
on the outside (P), touches the organs (v)
mammals use what type of respiration?
negative pressure respiration
4 coelomic cavitites
one around each lung, one around heart, and the abdominal coelom
what cervical nerves form the phrenic nerve?
where is the vagus nerve attached?
what does the diaphragm do during inhalation?
(dome-shaped) flattens when contracting (exhalation is higher and inhalation is lower)
Why does the left lung have 2 lobes?
the heart takes over some of the left lungs' space
Composed of a network of vessels, ducts, nodes, and organs. Provides defense against infection.
where is lymph often found around?
how are lymph nodes named?
by their location. they are highly variable in number, appearance, and precise locations
important groups of lymph nodes
Mediastinal, Cervical, Axillary, Inguinal
what are the 2 major lymph highways
right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct (left side)
removes and recycles components of old red blood cells
catch debris and pathogens as they enter the pharynx
most common azygos vein
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