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Terms in this set (58)
is process of collecting relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion
- how and why a person behaving abnormally
- how that person may be helped
- evaluate treatment progress
What do clinical assessments determine?
Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place
Concepts or rules that can be applied universally; compare 1 individual to other individuals
Behavioral assessment emphasizes the ____________ approach.
attempts to identify specific:
- S, O, R, C
- these variables are put together in a functional analysis
Behavioral assessment attempts to ________________.
- emphasizes the function (purpose) of specific factors as they relate to increasing/decreasing the target response
- case explanation
- causal model for symptoms
- clinical interviews
What are the 3 categories of clinical assessment techniques?
- have clear reliability and validity
To be useful, assessment tools must be __________ and have _____________.
- the process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual's score can be measured
- set up common steps to be followed for when a test is administered
- consistency of assessment measures; a good tool always yields the same results in the same situation
- test retest and interrater
- using the same test on two occasions to measure consistency
- yields the same results every time it is given to the same people
- take it once, then take it again
- two or more raters or judges who administer and score a test come to similar conclusions
- different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret a tool
- accuracy of measurement
- a good tool must accurately measure what it is supposed to measure
- content, predictive, concurrent
- The degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it's supposed to cover
- a tool must sample representatively from the construct it is intended to assess
- a tool's ability to predict future characteristics or behavior
- tool accurately predicts the future
- the degree to which the measures gathered from one tool agree with the measures gathered from other assessment techniques
- a tool's results agree with independent measures assessing similar characteristics
- face to face encounters
- used to collect detailed information, especially personal history, about a client
- allow interviewers to focus on whatever topics they consider most important
structured clinical interview
- clinician asks prepared questions
- standard set of questions designed for all interviews
- same format for everyone
unstructured clinical interview
- clinicians ask open-ended questions
mental status exam
- a set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client's abnormal functioning
- included in many structured exams
- may lack validity/accuracy
- interviewers could be biased
- may lack reliability
What are weaknesses of clinical interviews?
devices for gathering information about a few aspects of a person's psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred
projective tests, personality inventories, response inventories, psychophysiological tests, neurological/neuropsychological, and intelligence
What are the 6 types of clinical tests given?
- a test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to
- require that people respond to vague stimuli to assess the unconscious drives and conflicts
- people project personality into tasks
Rorschach inkblot test, TAT, sentence completion
What are exampled of Projective Tests?
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
- a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
- show people random pictures and asked to make up a story about them
- people usually identify with someone in one of the pictures
- not subjected to standardization, reliability, or validity
What are weaknesses of Projective Tests?
- a test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them
- based on self reported responses
- objective personality tests
MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
- the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes
- comprised of 10 clinical scales
- scores from 0-120
- above 65/70 = abnormality
- personality inventory
response inventories/specific clinical measures
- clinical tests designed to measure a person's responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes
- affective inventories, social skills inventories, cognitive inventories
- high content validity (strength)
- not all subjected to standardization, reliability, or other 2 forms of validity
What are strengths and weaknesses of Objective measures (personality inventories) and specific domains (response inventories)?
- a test that measures physical/physiology responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems
- finger temp., heart rate, BP, penile BV
- can be highly precise
- may be weakly related to what we are trying to measure
What are strengths and weaknesses of psychophysiological measures/tests?
- tests that directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity
- EEG, PET scan, CAT scan, MRI, fMRI
- tests that indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive, perceptual, and moto functioning on certain tasks
- Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test
a series of neuropsychological tests
- can be very accurate
- at best, just screening devices. Better to use them in battery, each targeting a specific area
What are strengths and weaknesses of neuropsychological tests?
- the capacity to judge well, reason well, and comprehend well
- an inferred quality, so measured indirectly
- test designed to indirectly measure a person's intellectual ability
- assesses both verbal and nonverbal skills
- general score is an IQ
- produced by Binet and Simon
intelligence quotient (IQ)
an overall score derived from intelligence tests
- very standardized; high reliability/validity
- can be influenced by nonintelligence factors and may contain cultural biases in language or task
What are strengths and weaknesses of intelligence tests?
- self montoring
What are the 3 types of clinical observations?
watching behavior in real-world settings without trying to manipulate the situation
analog clinical observation
- watching behavior in a clinical setting or laboratory
- often aided by special equipment
People observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings, or cognitions as they occur over time
- useful for idiographic analysis and behavioral assessment
- can be unreliable and biased (depending on observer)
What are strengths and weaknesses of clinical observations?
- using all available information of factors that are causing and maintaining a disturbance
- influenced by theoretical orientation
- also called a clinical picture
- a determination that a person's problems reflect a particular disorder
- based on clinical picture/formulation
- based on an existing classification system
a cluster of symptoms
a list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses
the DSM-5; lists over 400 disorders
What is the current classification system in use in the U.S.?
What is an alternate classification system that is used by most other countries?
DSM-5 requires clinicians to provide both _____________ and ______________ information as part of a proper diagnosis
refers to the name of the category (disorder) indicated by the client's symptoms (from DSM-5)
a rating of how severe a client's symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality
- the co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual
- more than half the people with a disorder have symptoms that meet the criteria for at least one other disorder
a psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications
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