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Biology of sharks and rays exam 1

Terms in this set (57)

Family Alopiidae: thresher sharks - Long caudal fin used for stunning prey. Endothermic (can maintain its body temperature above ambient temperatures). Reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy (embryos are first nourished by yolk sac, then by consumption of eggs that are released from the maternal ovary and enter the uterus).
Family Cetorhinidae: basking sharks - Large, planktivorous species. Reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy.
Family Megachasmidae: megamouth sharks - Large, planktivorous species that exhibit unusual "fleshy lips" that appear to be bioluminescent, but more likely reflect light produced by prey species. Flabby body appearance. Likely reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy.
Family Mitsukurinidae: goblin sharks - Unusual "trowel-shaped" head with highly protrusible jaws and dagger-like teeth. Pink coloration (believed to be due to think skin layers). Likely reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy.
Family Odontaspididae: sand tiger sharks - Large-bodied, slow-moving species. Long, dagger-like teeth. Can gulp air to aid in maintaining buoyancy. Reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy and embryophagy (embryos are first nourished by yolk sac, then by consumption of eggs that are released from the maternal ovary and enter the uterus. After this, the largest embryo in each uterus can feed on its siblings).
Family Lamnidae: white sharks - Large, fast-swimming species. Homocercal or "lunate" caudal fin (both lobes are about the same size). Respire using ram ventilation. Endothermic. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with oophagy.
Family Pseudocarchariidae: crocodile sharks- Smallest species in this order. Cigar shaped. Short fins. Reproduces by aplacental viviparity with oophagy.
Family Dasyatidae: stingrays - Diamond-shaped body with long whiplike tail. Possess spine (modified dermal denticle with toxin-producing cells). Largely bottom-dwelling. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation (embryos are initially nourished by yolk sac, then by uterine secretions known as histotroph; this fluid is produced by extensions of the uterine wall known as trophonemata).
Family Aetobatidae: pelagic eagle rays* - Active swimmers with "wing-like" disc. Often exhibit colorful, "spotted" appearance. Can often jump out of water. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation
Family Gymnuridae: butterfly rays - Spade-shaped disc, but generally bottom-dwelling. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation
Family Myliobatidae: eagle rays, manta and devil rays** - Active swimmers with "winglike" disc. Manta and devil rays possess terminal mouths with expanded "cephalic lobes" used to funnel water through the mouth for feeding on plankton. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation
Family Rhinopteridae: cownose rays - Active swimmers with "wing-like" disc. Can often jump out of water. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation. Can form large migratory schools. Hard prey specialists that use crushing tooth plates to feed to mollusks, crustaceans, and other benthic prey.
Family Urolophidae: round rays - Similar to Dasyatidae but small, circular discs. Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation.
Family Hexatrygonidae: longsnout stingray - Enlarged, pointed rostrum, 6 pairs of external gill slits. Likely reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation.
Family Potamotrygonidae: river rays - Native to South America, especially the Amazon River. The only chondricthyan family composed of members that are obligate freshwater species (obligated to live in freshwater because they are incapable of surviving in saltwater). Reproduce by aplacental viviparity with uterolactation.
Family Urotrygoniade: smalleyed round rays
Family Plesiobatidae: deepwater stingray