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Unit 5: The Role of Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis - Biology
Chapter 8: From DNA to Proteins
Terms in this set (26)
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms. It is a code or instructions for growth and development of organisms.
monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base.
model that compares the structure of a DNA molecule, in which two strands wind around one another, to that of a twisted ladder.
base pairing rules
rule that describes how nucleotides form bonds in DNA; adenine (A) always bonds with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always bonds with cytosine (C).
process by which DNA is copied.
enzyme that makes bonds between nucleotides, forming an identical strand of DNA during replication.
theory that states that, in cells, information only flows from DNA to RNA to proteins.
nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis.
Process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA.
enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template.
form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis.
RNA that is in the ribosome and guides the translation of mRNA into a protein; also used as a molecular clock.
form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced.
sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid.
codon that signals to ribosomes to stop translation.
codon that signals to ribosomes to begin translation; codes for the first amino acid in a protein.
set of three nucleotides in a tRNA molecule that binds to a complementary mRNA codon during translation.
section of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds, starting the transcription of mRNA.
section of DNA that contains all of the code to begin transcription, regulate transcription, and build a protein; includes a promotor, regulatory gene, and structural gene.
sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis.
segment of a gene that does not code for an amino acid.
change in DNA sequence.
mutation that involves a substitution of only one nucleotide.
mutation that involves the insertion or deletion of a nucleotide in the DNA sequence.
agent that can induce or increase the frequency of mutation in organisms.
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