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Arts and Humanities
history chapter 23
The Great War 1914-1918
Terms in this set (80)
British ship, with American passengers, sank by German u-boats on May 7, 1915. (128 Americans died)
Germany's promise that its U-boats would warn ships before attacking
president wilsons proclamation of neutrality
Woodrow Wilson sought to maintain neutrality, but objections came from German Americans and Irish Americans
submarine & inernational law
-wilson interpreted internationallaw to insist SUBMARINES SURFACE B4 FIRING AT SHIPS... germans disagreed of corse.
unrestricted submarine warfare
-In February 1917, Germany resumed unrestricted Submarine Warfare
-Germans hoped to defeat Britain before American troops could enter the war.,
-When Germans announced resumption of unrestricted submarine, US broke off diplomatic ties, and later declared war on Germany
- Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico's promixity to the US).
-In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
wilsons war message
wilson asked for war because:
1) German violated freedom of seas
2) Assaults on human rights.
3) "make world safe for democracy"
1st woman to serve in Congress. Suffragist and pacifist, voted against US involvement in WWI and WWII.,
national defense act of 1916
federal law in 1958 Passed in response to the Russian launch of Sputnik satellite; appropriated federal funds to improve education in areas considered crucial to national defense/security: math, foreign language, and science.
navy act of 1916
overlooked landmark piece of legislation, President Woodrow Wilson determined amidst the repeated incidents with Germany to build "incomparably, the greatest Navy in the world" over a ten-year period with the intent of making the U.S. Navy equal to any two others in the world.,
*largest naval expansion
selective service act
1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft.
- Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
african american enlistees in military
-At urging of the NAACP, blacks joined in the U.S. war effort
-served in segregated units under white officers
-widespread belief in black community that military service would help break down prejudice --> lead to political and economic gains
general john j pershing
-general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, urged that the AEF operate as an independent fighting force, under American command;
- was made General of the Armies of the United States, which is the highest rank given to an officer
trench warfare (sitting duck)
- form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield.
-party of revolutionary Marxists
-1917 uprising in Russia led by Vladimir Lenin which established a communist government and withdrew Russia from World War I.
wilson's 14 points
-1918. Set of idealistic goals designed to secure a lasting peace at end of WWI. Wilson wanted free trade, freedom of the seas, a reduction in arms/weapons, that all nations could choose their own government, and the creation of a League of Nations to settle disputes between nations and keep the peace.
food, rail road, and fuel administration
war industries board (WIB)
-set prices, wages, & production standards, created by Wilson to oversee the production and distribution of goods made by the country's war industries
-power to rank manufacturers so most essential 2 war got raw materials first.
after zimmerman telegram was released
When British intelligence released the Zimmermann Telegram, Americans took the threat from Germany seriously because of deteriorating relations with Mexico.
A note intercepted by the US, originally sent from Germany to Mexico saying that if Mexico can keep the US out of the Great War then Germany would help Mexico regain its territories taken from the US like New Mexico, Texas and Arizona.
-Introduced by the Germans and was used by both sides during the war; caused vomiting, blindness, and suffocation. Its use was banned after WWI because it was just that horrific
alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II
A group of revolutionary Russian Marxists who took control of Russia's government in November 1917
Fourteen goals of the United States in the peace negotiations after World War I. President Woodrow Wilson announced the Fourteen Points to Congress in early 1918. They included public negotiations between nations, freedom of navigation, free trade, self-determination for several nations involved in the war, and the establishment of an association of nations to keep the peace. The "association of nations" Wilson mentioned became the League of Nations.
War Industries Board
largest agency coordinated the national economy., Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., Headed by Bernard Baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.
Revenue Act of 1916 & 1917
-raised the lowest income tax rate from 1% to 2% and raised the top rate to 15% on taxpayers with incomes above $2 million
-also instituted the federal estate tax
African American Migration
African American Migration North
Many African Americans moved north to work in industry
National War Labor Board
-Wilson made these protections 1918
-Board intervened sectors of economy -> mediate disputes
-help draw up new contracts-> increased the leverage of workers
*discourage strikes and urge management 2 negotiate w/ existing unions, A board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
Civil liberties issue
more than 2,000 ppl faced prosecution under the laws of sedition acts
- concerned with questions of the freedoms and due process provided by the Bill of Rights; also called "negative freedom" freedom from government interference
Committee on Public Information (George creel)
-propaganda agency to win support for the war
- It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
Espionage and Sedition Acts
-Two laws enacted to impose harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S participation in WW1
-gave the government wide authority to crack down on protestors
Eugene V. Debs
..., Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
Schneck v. United States
Supreme Court endorsed convictions under the Espionage and Sedition Act
1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft in WWI; justice holmes declare that govt can limit speech if the speech provokes a clear and present danger of substantive evils
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's.,
A period during the Cold War where the American public was terrified of Communists and the spread of Communism.
Starting as a veterans' organization, the American Legion quickly grew to become a stalwart defender of Americanism and social conformity.
Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer staged illegal raids on meeting halls and homes of alleged Communists.
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
"Red Summer" of 1919
4 mill workers on strike, sparking a red sacre.
Paris Peace Conference
Wilson underestimated his task in Paris. The victors demanded reparations from Germany, and most of Wilson's Fourteen Points failed to gain Allied support.
Principle of self-determination
..., implies that people who identify as a nation should have the right to form a state and exercise sovereignty over their affairs
Allies' governance of former colonies and territories, who wanted independence and viewed the mandate as continued colonialism.
Balfour Declaration of 1917
..., Ordered Palestine to be a national home for Jews
League of Nation
- international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Article 10 of the League Covenant
Wilson worked hardest on establishing the League of Nations to provide for collective security.
Treaty of Versailles
treaty imposed on Germany by France, Great Britain, the United States, and other Allied Powers after World War I. It demanded that Germany dismantle its military and give up some lands to Poland. It was resented by many Germans.
..., Stubborn Senators who had opposed Americas entry into World War One and afterward continued to argue that America ought not to be entangled in European Affairs. Equally important was the fact that they hated Woodrow Wilson which was something many Americans could agree with (Yes I know that Wilson has earned Sainthood Status and that technically I have no right to say anything bad about Wilson)
The characteristics of trench warfare
fighting from trenches with a no man's land in between them, trading huge losses for little territorial gain
German subs, some came close to U.S. coast, patroling, shooting at anything, which upsets Americans.
created in 1918 to discourage strikes and urge management to negotiate with existing unions.
what did 14 points summarize?
summarized Wilson's international view of a stable world order based on American principles.
war begain following assassination of the heir to the
woodrow saught to maintain neutrality but objections came from _____ ____ and ____ ___
german americans and irish americans
german americans tended to support the
irish americans had strong animosity toward
jewish immigrants from E. Europe wanted to
US is onlynation that could lead world into a new peaceful era
-british victrory seemed crucial to these principles
britain violated neutral rights by
using their navy to sever all neutral trade with germany
thus crippling their economy
germans naval tactics relied on
germans resumed unrestricted submarine warfare cause they hoped to defeat..
britain before american troops could enter war
when british intelligence released zimmermans telegram, americans...
took threat from germany seriously cause of deteriorating relations with mexico
german/mexican cartoon says
"join with germany and you get a bit of the United States"
who was the leader in military organization and efficiency?
great powers of europe copied the ___ ____, large reserves, and detailed planning of the prussian system
universal conscription (had to register into army)
only one to launch attack on columbus
3 main decisions for war
1 - germ violations freedom of sea
2 - assults on human rights
3 - "make world safer for democracy"
menial jobs (ew)
majority of blacks were relegated to these jobs far behind front lines, like getting the dead bodies from battle field.
trench warfare and US expideitionary force
-remained independent from allied forces
-ppl who participated in conflict, but under their own leader
-sit in trenches, attack from far distance
how did US finance the war?
issuing war bonds (bonds by gov)
total cost of war
32.9 billion (US borrow 24 bill form public)
win the hearts and minds of people
-"to the american soldiers of german descent - you say you honor your own country but how could you fight against your own homeland?!?"
germans wanted to attract ___ to berlin
how many men were actually drafted out of 5 million in war?
how many american soldiers actually saw combat?
what was the nature of WW1 combat marked by?
futile stalemate in the trenches
WW1 cartoon of food
"food is ammunition, dont waste it"
balfour declaration of 1917
..., It expressed support for a national home for the Jews in Palestine, it also added the rights of the non-Jewish people living there. It drew more Jews to Palestine.
league of nation
Wilson worked hard for this to provide for collective security
article 10 of league covenant
..., Wilson referred to it as the "kingpin" of the League Covenant. All members had to protect and preserve the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations against outside aggression, and to consult together to oppose aggression when it occurs.
treaty of versailles
1919 treaty that ended WWI. This is also what prompts Germany to anger and wage war in the future, (WW) 1918, , Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
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