Upgrade to remove ads
ANSI 3653 EXAM 1
Terms in this set (94)
As nutritionist, we must be concerned about the levels of the essential amino acids in the ruminant and non-ruminant animals, especially swine and poultry. Why? What is different in the horse? However, we are not as concerned about the levels of essential amino acids in the diets of ruminant animals, such as beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep and goats. Why?
We are not concerned about non-ruminants because they must have the amino acids in their diets, because theyre not naturally supplied. Horses are different because they practice coprophagy, which means they eat their feces that contains MCO protein. We're not as concerned about ruminants because their site of digestion is in the rumen, before the SI where proteins are absorbed.
Lactating dairy cows have a huge daily protein requirement. Why is it important to the lactating dairy cow that we feed some protein sources that are degraded in the rumen by microorganisms as well as some protein sources that will not be degraded in the rumen (ruminant bypass protein sources), but are digested and absorbed in the small intestine?
The protein requirement of a lactating dairy cow exceeds the ability of the ruminal MCOs. The MCOs are not capable of synthesizing sufficient protein to meet the needs of the cow for her own body as well as milk protein synthesis.
Assuming that an animal requires 2.0 lbs. of protein intake per day, but consumes 3.0 lbs. of protein in the feed; thereby, over consuming protein in relation to its protein requirement. If an animal consumes more protein than is required to meet the dietary requirement of the animal, what happens to the excessive protein that is consumed by the animal?
The excessive protein is excreted in the urine as urea. The remaining carbon skeleton (fatty acid) is used as an energy source by the animal.
Lipids are considered a concentrated source of energy. How do lipids compare with carbohydrates and proteins in terms of kilocalories of energy generated per gram of nutrient during metabolism? How much more energy is generated during metabolism by lipids as compared to carbohydrates and proteins?
1 gram of lipid contains 9.45 kcal as compared to 4.2 kcal of energy for carbohydrates and protein
- 2.25x more energy
One of the important nutritional components listed on a feed Tagus the amount of crude protein present in the feed or ration. Recently, a producer called regarding the relationship between the nitrogen content of feeds and crude protein value expressed on the feed tag. He knew that protein contained nitrogen, but was unsure as to their connection. Explain to the producer why the percentage of nitrogen is determined and then multiplied by 6.25 in the determination of the crude protein level in a feed.
Most proteins contain 16% of nitrogen. If you take 100g of pure protein and divide it by 6.25, you will find the % crude protein.
When considering the digestibility of protein, digestibility is expressed as apparent digestibility rather than true digestibility. Why?
Digestibility assumes that all dry matter in the feces is undigested feed material consumed by the animal, so we use the term "apparent" instead of what's actually there (true).
What is metabolic fecal nitrogen?
Nitrogen material present in the fecal dry matter that was not consumed by the animal.
Because there are lots of things that are protein in nature that end up in the feces that were not consumed as feed (termed metabolic fecal nitrogen). Remember our bodies are mostly protein after water of course, so the digestibility is apparent because not everything we measure in the feces was consumed as feed.
Do animals have feed requirements or nutrient requirements?
Animals have specific nutrient and energy requirements.
What role do feeds play in meeting the animal's nutritional requirements?
Feeds are just carriers of the required nutrients and potential energy derived from the metabolism of the nutrients at cell level.
Name the nutrients that are required by animals.
Water, carbs, proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals
Is energy a nutrient?
What nutrients can be metabolized to yield energy for the animal?
carbs, proteins, fats
____ is any material included in a diet or ration because of its nutrient comp and/or nutritional properties (forages & roughages, cereal grains, by-product feeds, mineral supplements, vitamin supplements, feed additives).
____ is a 24 hour allowance of feed or picture of feed ingredients.
____ implies that the ration or diet is nutritionally adequate to meet animal's requirements for a specific purpose.
____ is any feed ingredient with low CF, high levels of nutrient density (corn, wheat, oats)
____ is any feed ingredient with greater than 20% CF, relatively low levels of nutrient density, typically low in dry matter digestibility (grasses, hay).
____ is the condition in which an animal is neither gaining or losing body weight.
When is an animal in a positive energy balance?
Positive Energy Balance: when the consumption of feed is over and above the amount required for maintenance (growth/fattening; pregnancy; production of meat, milk, eggs; work)
When is an animal in a negative energy balance?
Negative Energy Balance: when the nutrient and potential energy intake is below that necessary to support maintenance (decreased performance, weight loss).
What are the four basic processes involved in feed utilization by an animal?
Prehension, Digestion, Absorption, Metabolism
____ is obtaining food with the mouth.
_____ is the process of breaking down the feeds and their complex components into forms that can be absorbed by the animal's digestive system (chewing, action of digestive enzymes, MCO action).
____ is the process by which the complex competes of the digested feeds cross the cellular membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
____ is all changes which take place in the complex components of feeds after absorption from the digestive tract into the cell (provision of nourishment and energy for bodily functions).
What is the most vital nutrient ingested by animals?
Typically, animals will consume _____ to _____ times more weight in water than the
amount of their dry matter intake per day.
What is the most common source of water for an animal?
___ is in moisture content of feeds.
____ is chemically bound and released through metabolic processes.
____ means the water is present in feeds.
"As-fed" or "As-is"
___ means "free" water has been removed through a calculation or removed through a drying process.
What nutrient component of livestock feeds is present in the highest amount on a dry matter
Animals consume carbohydrates in large quantities; however, animals do not store large
quantities of carbohydrates in their bodies. What are the principal functions of carbohydrates
in the animal's body?
Carb Function: source of energy for bodily functions, carbon skeletons for building other nutrients, milk synthesis.
Non-Ruminant: digestion occurs in the small intestine by digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas and absorption occurs in the lower small intestine (starch that makes it through is digested in the cecum)
Digestion of Starch (Non-Ruminant)
Ruminant: digestion occurs in the rumen via microbial fermentation. Starch is converted to VFAs. Starch that makes it through is later digested in the upper small intestine by pancreatic enzymes.
Digestion of Starch (Ruminant)
Non-Ruminant: Digestion occurs in the cecum resulting in the formation of VFAs.
Digestion of Cellulose (Non-Ruminant)
Ruminant: Digestion occurs in the rumen via microbial digestion converting cellulose to VFAs.
Digestion of Cellulose (Ruminant)
The horse digestive system is unique. How does the horse utilize cellulose and starch?
Cecum contains microbial population that functions as the digestive mechanism of ingest. Cecum is the primary site of fiber digestion. Fiber digestion is similar to ruminants, but due to smaller size compared to the rumen, high quality forages are digested faster and more extensively. Starch that escapes digestion in the SI goes to the cecum. Cellulose is of limited value because of limited space.
During the rumen fermentation or digestion of carbohydrates, proteins or lipids by rumen
microorganisms, three principal volatile fatty acids are produced. Name them.
Acetate, propionate, and butyrate
Which nutrient is found in the highest concentration besides water in all living organisms and animals?
____ are AA required in the diet that cannot be synthesized at a rate sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of the animal and therefore must be supplied in the diet.
Dietary Essential Amino Acids
What are the 10 essential amino acids that are required by animals?
Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, arginine, leucine, lysine
What are the 4 essential amino acids that are typically the most likely to be deficient in practical livestock diets.
threonine, tryptophan, methionine, lysine
___ is the AA in the diet that's in the lowest % compared to how much is needed.
Limiting Amino Acids
Which ONE of the essential amino acids is most likely to be the first limiting?
___ has a cecum that contains billions of MCOs capable of synthesis of the essential AA. Small intestine is the site of AA absorption, and the cecum is behind the SI. So the essential AA are excreted in the feces and are not absorbed by most non-ruminants. Essential AAs must be supplied in the diet.
Non-Ruminant (digestion and absorption of protein)
___ have the rumen, which contains MCOs that are capable of synthesizing MCO protein from nitrogen. The MCO protein is later digested and absorbed as AA in the small intestine. Not super worried with essential AA intake by ruminants.
Ruminant (digestion and absorption of protein)
Degradation of protein in the rumen and cecum by microorganisms is very important for the ruminant and non-ruminant animal, especially the horse. Why?
Rumen MCOs have a definitive nitrogen requirement for growth and reproduction.
Is there a protein level in the diet that is a concern when feeding predominantly forage diets?
At least 6% CP should be in the diet
What is microbial protein synthesis and how does it aid in the nutrition of the ruminant vs. the non-ruminant animal?
Protein Synthesis: MCOs are capable of synthesizing microbial protein from nitrogen resulting from the degradation of protein in the cecum and carbon skeletons, resulting from the degradation of NPN by microbial urease is very rapid. So protein must be supplied in a very rapid fashion.
___ is nitrogen supplied to the animal in a non-protein state.
Non-protein Nitrogen (NPN)
How do ruminant animals utilize NPN to synthesize microbial protein in the rumen? How is the microbial protein used by the ruminant animal to meet the animal's requirement for essential amino acids?
Urea is the most common form. Urea is rapidly degraded when it hits the rumen. If it's not utilized it'll be excreted in the urine.
Cellulose and starch are digested by rumen microorganisms at different rates. When feeding a non-protein nitrogen product, such as urea, which carbohydrate source (starch or cellulose) is more effective in supplying vital carbon skeletons for synthesis of microbial protein by the ruminal microbes? Discuss the release of ammonia nitrogen from urea as compared to the availability of carbon skeletons from starch or cellulose.
Starches and sugars are best for supplying vital carbon skeletons for synthesis of microbial protein.
___ is organic compounds that are characterized by being insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents.
Monogastric animals require specific levels of the essential fatty acids in their diets to prevent skin disorders. Name the three most important essential fatty acids?
linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic
Name the functions of lipids or fats?
Lipid Functions: dietary energy source, source of essential fatty acids, insulation, carrier of fat soluble vitamins, major factor in quality grading of beer
An animal deposits fat in a rather unique manner. What are the four sites of major fat deposition in the animal and in what sequence are they deposited?
Internal, intermuscular (seam fat), subcutaneous (below the skin surface), intramuscular (marbling)
What are the practical applications of fats and oils in livestock feeding?
Primary function: increase energy content of diet.
Secondary function: control dust, binds small particles, maintenance of equipment.
Name the major functions of minerals in the body.
growth and development of bones, teeth and soft tissues; regulation of cell acid: base balance; component of enzymes; regulation of body properties; immune function.
Name the four fat soluble vitamins and an associated function of each.
Vitamin A (vision), D (calcium and phosphorus absorption), E (antioxidant), K (blood coagulation)
What is the common name of the procedures related to the chemical analyses of a feed?
Proximate analysis or weende system
There are several chemical fractions that are determined in the chemical analyses of feeds.
Which fraction is not determined by chemical analyses and must be determined by a
Nitrogen Free Extract
In a feed analysis, what fraction is associated with the lipids (fats, oils)?
In a feed analysis, what does the percentage of ash measure?
Nitrogen Free Extract
In a feed analysis, explain the difference between crude fiber and nitrogen free extract?
The Crude Fiber stimulates digestion in the stomach and intestines and NFE determines the non-fibrous carbs.
The Van Soest system aids in the description of the fibrous carbohydrate portion of a feed or
ration better than the simplistic determination termed crude fiber. What components are in Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)? NDF is very useful in determining what important nutritional factor for ruminant animals? ADF is very useful in determining what important nutritional factor of a forage by the ruminant animal?
NDF: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin
ADF: cellulose, lignin
-NDF determines dry matter intake
-ADF determines digestibility of a forage
___ is biological analyses, digestion and metabolism trials, determines the utilization by the animals.
___ is microbial procedures. in a lab, uses microorganisms to "digest" feed.
What is TDN? What chemical fractions are included in the determination of TDN? TDN is
used to estimate what nutritional factor important to animals?
Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN = digestible %CF + (digestible %EE x 2.25) + digestible %CP + digestible %NFE)
-nitrogen, crude fiber, ether extract, NFE
-It predicts the energy content for ruminants
Feeds that contain drugs must specify that the feed is "Medicated" on the label. What other detailed information concerning the drugs must also be present on the label?
-"medicated" if it contains drugs (with the statement of purpose, active ingredient, and amount of medication in the feed)
-the required guaranteed feed analysis (with minimum CP, max CP equivalent from NPN ingredients, minimum crude fat (ether extract), an max crude fiber)
-customer formula feeds
On a feed tag, a feed's guaranteed analysis must contain specific information on what four feed components?
minimum CP, max CP equivalent from NPN ingredients, minimum crude fat (ether extract), and max crude fiber
If a feed mixture contains more than 6.5% total mineral content, what three mineral levels must be present on the feed tag?
Calcium, Phosphorus, and Salt
On a feed tag there is a listing of individual ingredients. Is there a specific reason for the order of the listing? Explain.
The ingredients are listed in order of largest percentage in the ration to smallest percentage in the ration.
____ is a prescription that a vet provides to the product for the use of a regulated feed additive in livestock feed.
Veterinary Feed Directive
When does the VFD go into effect?
It goes into effect when the producer presents the form to the feed provider. The new regulation came into effect on Jan. 1, 2017
What does the VFD require?
The producer must present the form to the feed provider. The vet must stay up to date on all drugs that require a VFD, they must maintain organized and detailed records of all VFDs (two copies for 2 years), they must maintain an active roll in their clients' operations. The producer must get the VFD from their vets, meet with the vet and nutritionist to formulate the best ration for their operation, use the feed additive as directed, keep records of all VFDs they have received for 2 years.
What "drugs" fall under the new VFD?
Penicillin, Cephalosporins, quinolone, fluroquinolones, tetracycline, macrolides, fulfas, glycopeptides.
How many products were affected by the new VFD?
8 were affected
What is a VCPR?
Vet-Client Patient Relationship
How long must VFD records be kept?
Does the VFD effect swine and poultry production? Why or why not?
Little to no feed that falls under the new regulations is regularly used for these animals.
When feeding high roughage diets, what is the primary volatile fatty aid produced during microbial fermentation of the roughage in the rumen? What is the typical rumen pH during the fermentation of a high roughage diet?
Acetic acid is the primary VFA produced during microbial fermentation of roughage in the rumen. The rumen pH is typically greater than 6, closer to neutral.
In lecture and lab, we have discussed numerous factors that affect the quality of forages and ultimately, the dry matter intake of forages by ruminant animals. Explain the effect of stage of maturity, moisture content, crude protein content and crude fiber content of a forage on the quality determination of the forage and ultimately on the dry matter intake of the forage.
Maturity: The lower moisture content, the more mature the plant is. Green is immature and good, brown is mature and bad.
-Moisture: High moisture=immature. Low moisture=mature.
-Crude Protein: Excellent > 13%
Poor < 6%
-Crude Fiber: Excellent 20-29%
Poor > 40%
The higher the quality, the more dry matter intake.
What relationship exists between maturity of a growing plant, the presence of a seed head on the plant and the quality of the forage?
High leaf: stem ratio - positive association
-Leaves high in protein & digestibility
-Leaves lower in fiber than stems
With high forage maturity, there is a lower digestibility
-More stems, less leaves
-Higher in fiber and lignification and lower digestibility
What is the principal factor that controls the voluntary dry matter intake of high roughage diets in ruminant animals?
The rumen fill is the principal factor that controls the voluntary dry matter intake of high roughage diets in ruminant animals.
Explain why a ruminant can consume more alfalfa hay (excellent quality forage) than winter native pasture (poor quality forage).
A ruminant can consume more high-quality forage at a faster rate, so the animal can consume more in a 24-hour period.
Assuming that a group of wintering beef cows was consuming dormant, mature, weathered forage with a dry matter content of 92%, a crude protein content of 2.7% and a percent crude fiber value of 42.1%. In class we discussed Positive Associative Effect and Negative associative Effect. Explain in detail the impact on dry matter intake with the feeding of a protein supplement to these cows. Explain in detail the impact on dry matter intake with the feeding of a supplement that contains high levels of cereal grains (starch) to the cows.
When you feed a low quality forage to animals with protein lower than 6% CP, there is a nitrogen deficiency. You then feed a luminal degradable protein source. The protein will stimulate the MCOs to digest at a faster rate, therefore increasing the dry matter intake (positive associative effect). When you feed a supplement that contains high levels of starch, the rumen pH will drop resulting in fewer MCOs. This will cause the rate of digestion to decrease, resulting lower dry matter intake levels.
___ is a nitrogen-fixer.
Name two common legumes.
Peanuts and Alfalfa
___ grows in late spring and summer.
warm season forage
Name two examples of warm season forages.
Bermuda grass and Lovegrass
____have a moderate DM yield of 2000-4000 lbs. standing crop forage DM/acre. Moderate to low nutrient comp of 10-12%.
Tall Grass Native Plants (bluestems)
____ have a low DM yield of 700-2000 lbs. standing crop forage DM/acre. Moderate to low nutrient comp of 12-14%.
Short Grass Native Plants (gramas)
You might also like...
Applied Nutrition(ANSI 3653) - Exam 1
Animal Science Exam 3
Chapter 15: Nutrients and Their Functions
Animal Nutrition -
Other sets by this creator
ANSI 3653 FINAL (poultry)
ANSI 3653 FINAL (Dog and Cat)
ANSI 3653 FINAL (swine part 2)
ANSI 3653 FINAL (swine part 1)
Other Quizlet sets
Quiz 8 - Networking Concepts and Technologies
Immunology Quiz 4
Chapter 3 - SPD