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BIO Lesson 14
Terms in this set (50)
Having an abnormally low hematocrit (or fewer than normal red blood cells); reduces oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
Largest artery that delivers blood from the left ventricle to the systemic circuit.
Smaller blood vessels that branch from arteries.
A blood vessel that transports blood from the heart, at higher pressure than veins, to the capillaries of the body.
A chamber of the heart that collects blood returning from the lungs or the rest of the body.
A cell that can generate action potentials on its own.
Autorhythmic (or pacemaker) cell
A type of sensory neuron that monitors blood pressure.
A connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrix containing blood cells; contained in a closed circulatory system, and important in the transport of respiratory gases, vitamins and minerals, nutrients, hormones, components of the immune system, and metabolic wastes.
The force with which blood flows through the arteries.
Tiny blood vessels that bring blood close enough to cells to allow the diffusion of molecules into and out of the blood.
Liters per minute of blood leaving the heart - heart rate X stroke volume; this goes up if you exercise and goes down if you are resting.
A circulatory system in which blood is contained in vessels and is separate from the interstitial fluid that bathes cells.
Closed circulatory system
Blood clots that form in the large veins. These can be caused by inactivity, which lets blood pool in the veins.
Deep vein thromboses
The second blood pressure reading; a measure of the force that blood exerts on the artery walls while the heart is between beats
Passive transport in which a particle (the solute) is dissolved in a gas or liquid (the solvent) and moves from an area of higher solute concentration to an area of lower solute concentration. Animals without specialized circulatory systems (like jellyfish and other cnidarians) can use this to deliver oxygen and remove waste from cells.
Swelling; can be caused by lack of movement, which squeezes skeletal muscles and helps to return blood through the veins to the heart.
A type of cell that forms the innermost lining of blood vessels.
A hormone that controls the production of red blood cells.
A junction between adjacent animal cells in the form of a pore in each of the plasma membranes surrounded by a protein that links the two cells and acts like a channel between them to allow materials to pass between the cells. Myocardial (heart) cells are linked by a _______________________, which allows action potentials to move through the heart muscle.
A muscular pump that, with each contraction, propels blood at high pressure to lungs, gills, or other body organs and tissues.
The proportion of blood that is made up from red blood cells; determined by spinning a blood sample in a centrifuge.
An oxygen-carrying protein molecule in red blood cells.
The single fluid of an open circulatory system that surrounds all cells and transports nutrients, gases, and waste products.
Heart muscle cell
A circulatory system in which a single fluid, hemolymph, circulates to transport nutrients, gases, and waste products and also surrounds all cells.
Open circulatory system
Part of the autonomic nervous system associated with being rested and well fed.
Parasympathetic nervous system
The liquid part of blood, containing dissolved blood, containing dissolved metabolites and wastes, salts and ions, and proteins that transport lipids, vitamins, and other chemicals to the tissues where they are required.
Cellular fragments, components of the blood, formed by the pinching off of fragments from large cells (megakaryocytes) in the bone marrow; they lack organelles but are filled with enzymes and chemicals important for blood clotting.
The "lie detector" test; measures breathing rate, sweat gland activity, and heart rate to evaluate whether an individual is telling the truth. (These are the same reactions triggered by the "fight or flight" response in a person.)
Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart; the returning blood is oxygenated.
Hemoglobin-containing, oxygen-transporting blood cells, the most common type of blood cell. Also called erythrocytes.
Red blood cells
A group of autorhythmic or pacemaker cells that set the pace of the heart rhythm.
Sinoatrial (SA) node
Part of the autonomic nervous system associated with stress or exercise.
Sympathetic nervous system
Flow of blood from the heart to the body (other than the lungs) and back to the heart; returning blood is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide.
The first blood pressure reading; a measure of the pressure when the heart contracts, pumping blood into the arteries.
A blood vessel that transports blood, at lower pressure than in arteries, from capillaries in the body to the heart.
Largest vein that returns blood to the right atrium.
A chamber of the heart from which blood is pumped to the lungs, gills, or the rest of the body.
Blood cells that defend against pathogens; the primary components of the immune response system. Also called leukocytes.
White blood cell
Fish have a closed circulatory system that is unique among other complex vertebrates. Which of the following is NOT an aspect of the fish's circulatory system?
The blood only flows through the heart once per circuit.
All of these are correct.
The fish's heart has two chambers: one atrium (blood in) and one ventricle (blood out).
Blood movement through the gills is the slowest because this is where gas exchange occurs.
All of these are correct.
When blood leaves the right ventricle of the mammalian heart, to which location does it flow next?
Why does the electrical impulse that simulates heart contraction first travels down to the bottom of the heart, and then stimulates contraction from the bottom of the ventricles upwards?
Blood needs to be squeezed out of the ventricles upwards into the pulmonary and aortic arteries.
Why do simple animals, such as flatworms and sea stars, survive without special circulatory systems but more complex organisms, like reptiles and humans, cannot?
Larger animals have many cells that are not in direct contact with the outside environment, so delivery and removal systems become necessary.
Which of the following organisms has an open circulatory system?
Blood flowing out of the narrow, thin-walled vessels in the tissues flows next into:
Deoxygenated blood enters the heart through what vessels?
Blood travels into the _________________ through the _____________.
right atrium; vena cava
What is the driving force that pushes blood through the veins on the way back to the heart?
contraction of skeletal muscles
The four components of the human blood are:
plasma, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets.
The main function of platelets in the blood is to:
limit blood loss.
Recommended textbook explanations
Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology
Michelle Provost-Craig, Susan J. Hall, William C. Rose
Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology
David N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis
Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Elaine N. Marieb, Suzanne M. Keller
Student Study Guide for Hole's Human Anatomy & Physiology
David Shier, Jackie Butler, Ricki Lewis
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