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PSY 505 Test 1
Terms in this set (110)
the study of human behavior in legal settings
forensic child psychology
the study of the behavior of children in legal settings
Psychology is a science and can be traced back to when?
Greek, Persian, Chinese, and Egyptian societies
Psychology has evolved from rational and thought-based explanations to what?
to empirical and observation-based answers to refined methods of research designed to remove bias and errors
What approach is superior?
Empirical approach because it requires that the hypotheses be tested against data to verify accuracy of ideas
the study of how we know, or which methods we rely on, to come to conclusions
What epistemes relate to psychology?
Rationalism, authority, empiricism, experimentalism
What is the goal of modern psychology?
To develop explanations for observations that repeatedly withstand critical inquiry
Roger Bacon stated four causes of error, what were they?
Unjustified reliance on authority
reliance on habit and tradition
respond to current prejudices
arrogance about our own perceived knowledge
Francis Bacon suggested four limitations of human thinking, what were they?
Idols of the tribe,
idols of the cave,
idols of the marketplace,
and idols of the theater
Errors in thought and observation?
Confirmation bias, availability, hindsight bias, and representativeness heuristic
research that does not acknowledge and seek to control potential sources of error and bias, and yet claims "factual" conclusions
Bunge came up with 7 hallmarks of pseudoscience, what were they?
1. use of ad hoc hypotheses
2. use of confirmation strategies rather than critical challenges
3. lack of self-correction
4. reversed burden of proof
5. reliance on testimonials and anedotes
6. use of scientific sounding language that masks issues
7. lake of connectivity with other disciplines
Psychology uses what as a guide?
Theories which can be used to generate hypotheses
- during an experimental study you need to measure all components of the theory
What is the significance of the M'Naghten case in 1843?
one of the earliest insanity cases
Brown v Board in 1954?
psychologists outlining ways segregations was detrimental to psychological health
What are some tasks of forensic psychologists?
Clinical forensic practice, risk assessment, competency, sanity, jury selection, expert testimonry, research, public affairs/advocacy, and crime prevention
the idea that we gain knowledge from nothing more than thought-based exploration of concepts
study of knowledge
the idea that we can gain knowledge from simple observation
the idea that we gain our own truths about the world from sources or people thought to have the knowledge to be correct, or authoritative
the idea that, in order to gain better access to the truth, you must control the possible sources of bias in our observations
a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence
making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
the tendency to judge the probability based on its superficial association with a sterotype
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
- social environment has an impact on behaviors, decision making, and problem solving
- The social environment does not just reinforce specific behaviors; it also provides the cues needed to select which values, thoughts, and judgments will be brought into awareness
What was the Stanley Milgram study of obedience?
recruited 40 adults between the ages of 20 and 50 and paid them $4.50, they were able to keep the money no matter what, if they answered the question wrong an electric shock would be administered
What was responsible for the Obedience seen in Milgram's study?
Prestige of the authority figure, Proximity of the authority figure, Proximity of the victim, Presence/absence of examples of defiance
What was the Solomon Asch experiment of conformity?
asked people to participate in a study of perceptual judgements, one participant was with a group of confederates, and they were showed a card with three different lines all of different length, confederates responded correctly to the 1st set of cards, but incorrectly to the 2nd card, 75% of the confederates also stated the wrong answer
what are the reasons for conformity?
1. believed they misunderstood the directions
2. believed others in the group noticed something they didn't
3. general tendency to not differ from the crowd
what factors impact conformity?
Incorrect answer must be unanimous to produce the strongest conformity
the conformity effects grows as the size of the group grows until when?
up to six
What is the significance of the Stanford Prison experiment?
Assigned participants randomly to play either a guard or prisoner and given appropriate clothing.
Study planned for two weeks. However, guards became too aggressive on the first day. The prisoners then tried to revolt.
Prior to ending the experiment early, guards had placed bags over prisoner's head, forced nudity, forced them to simulate sex acts with inanimate objects, and engaged in painful punishments.
What allows people to become aggressive when individuality is de-emphasized?
When we are given a task for which we are poorly trained, and when we are given the freedom of relative anonymity, we may begin to respond in a stereotyped fashion.
when like-minded people come to a common conclusion, while failing to
consider alternative information.
the tendency for groups of like minded people who are discussing a problem to generate solutions that tend to be both more uniform and more extreme than the original positions held by its members.
tendency to decrease (intentionally or unintentionally) effort when participating in group tasks
- example: tug of war players do not pull as hard when they are with a group
- diffusion of responsibility
what are the three dimensions of attribution?
internality (the extent of intrinsic vs extrinsic factors)
Stability (enduring or temporary)
Gloabalness (specific to a limited situation or applicable to all situations)
Fundamental Attribution Error
overestimating internal, stable, global, factors in others, while believing in external factors for ourselves.
there is adaptive value to holding a more favorable attitude toward those things with which we are familiar
- less favorable attitudes to things that are unfamiliar
tendency to view all individuals outside our group as highly similar and less favorable
explain associationism when it comes to classical conditioning?
organisms learn by forming associations between objects or events that occur closely together in time
- Pavlov with the dogs and salivation
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
- Thorndike's Law of Effect
Continuous Reinforcement Schedule
contingencies always provided after a behavior and affect probability of next occurrence
Partial Reinforcement Schedules
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
Ratio schedule effect on acquisition and extinction
Ratio schedules with low ratio help achieve rapid rate of learning. However, extinction is also rapid.
interval schedule effect on acquisition and extinction
reflect slower learning, but also slow extinction
can decrease frequency of a behavior without punishment or removing reinforcement.
- view availability of behaviors as finite
- maximize the reinforcement we receive and limited in number of behaviors we can engage
explain operant baseline
measurement of the amount of time spent in a specific behavior in a specified time period
- we can find the most and least preferred behavior and infer how much reinforcement is available
Dual Process Theory
The proposal that judgment involves two types of thinking: a fast, efficient, but sometimes faulty set of strategies, and a slower, more laborious, but less risky set of strategies.
- large variety of contingencies
- returning to an abusive relationship over and over again
the relative frequency of behaviors will match the relative reinforcement available for those behaivors
a rapid, but breif, increase in behavior, which predictably follows the termination of reinforcement for the behavior
What did Hippocrates believe was related to the balance of human health?
- phlegm, yellow bile, black bile, and blood
What is a psychological disorder?
a pattern of behavior that affects a person's ability to be successful in social, occupational, or other environments and causes distress
What characteristics are required to constitute disorder behavior?
Abnormality, distress (in the very day life), adaptive functioning
What should one consider before diagnosing a psychological disorder?
alternative explanation and social relevance
concentrates on the thinking that underlies behavior
- the way we think about the world is an important factor in how we respond to it
- Back proposed that people become depressed when they develop a set of negative beliefs
global and rigid beliefs about ourselves (good vs. bad, wanted or unwanted, etc)
- Changing negative core beliefs into positive core beliefs is the goal of most cognitive therapies, but can be time consuming
predictive statements we make about the probabilities of our future experiences
- Based on core beliefs and set an interpretation of a situation that reflects core beliefs. Does not matter of the actual experience is different
What are the contextual/behavioral explanations for mental disorders?
Contextual explanations focus on environmental conditions that support the behavior.
- learning the behavior from parents
- Goal of the behaviorist is to identify the ways the behavior is support by contingencies and then make changes to the environment to reinforce the desired behaviors
What is the categorical approach for identifying behaviors?
identify most common behaviors associated with a specific disorder and then
group/ categorize those individuals displaying those symptoms
What is the dimensional approach for identifying behaviors?
assumes behavior can be understood in terms of probability or frequency, and does not assume that the existence of a behavior is problematic. Rather, behavior only becomes problematic when it exists in excess.
What are the two pathways that Cicchetti and Rogosch describe?
Multifinality: experiences do not always have the same outcomes
Equifianlity: similar problematic behaviors do not arise from the same specific casual events
What did Elliott and Tolan attempt to do?
attempted to categorize violent behaviors, especially those seen in groups of young people (wanted to differentiate the most concerning types of violence)
- situational violence
- relationship violence
- predatpry violence (used to achieve a goal or gain)
- psychopathological: violence as a self-rewarding behavior
What is a status violation?
crimes illegal because of a status
What is an index violation?
crimes that are illegal to everyone
delinquent behaviors are passive and involve a failure to meet an obligation
proactive and encroach on the rights of others
Destructive vs. Nondestructive
one dimension of conduct disordered behavior involves the extent of damage caused by the behavior.
What does children's behavior normally start with?
delinquent, covert, and nondestructive and over time may become more aggressive, overt, and destructive, in the absence of intervention.
What did Patterson discover when using the early starter model?
found differentiated based on when the earliest signs of behavioral difficulties began. Early starters more likely to commit more serious offenses and to continue into adulthood.
- If we alter the environment to support positive skills and behaviors, then child should have abilities needed to exhibit those behaviors and change is more likely.
What did Patterson discover that early starters need?
Early starters: because of skills deficits, they need both an incentive as well as skills training (study, anger management, understand peoples perspective)
Brofenbreener proposed what when it came to the ecological systems theory?
we must understand the influences present in each environment
- the family ecological systems explains divergent patterns of support that exist in different contexts
Multisystemic Therapy (MST)
addresses a variety of family, peer, and psychological problems by focusing on problem solving and communication skills training
- requires one therapist to enter each of the primary systems of the child and help to create a similar set of rules and skills in each system.
- effective at reducing reoffending
Includes violation of the rights of others, rule and law violations, substance use, truancy (violation of societal expectations)
- these behaviors may put a child at risk for continued disruption into adulthood
Behaviors that are part of a normal response to significant stressors or are only viewed as deviant from society, but create no other major distress or dysfunction are not disorders
must be: abnormal, distress, and adaptive functioning
Explain the differences among the ideas of biological, cognitive, and behavioral causation
Biological is the changes in physiology that can have an impact on behavior (Phineas Gag)
Cognitive how we think
Behavioral: if a behavior is followed by a reinforcment in some fashion the behaivor may continue
they may find themselves in an environment where they encounter threats and they resort to physicality
- remove the individual from the situation
violence as a self-rewarding behavior
- the pleasure or satisfaction of violence becomes the goal
What are the three dimensions of disruptive behavior ?
1. delinquent vs aggressive
2. overt vs covert
3. destructive vs nondestructive
the rules for two or three systems comingle
those systems that affect the major rule setters in a microsystem but are not always observable to the child
- parents bad day at work might affect they way they support the behavior of the child at home
those that surround and set the stage for all other systems (culture, community, and poverty)
characterized by a mood state that is often angry and behaviors that are defiant and confrontational
- cause disruption in school and family environments
Our ability to create a mental record of our experiences and then later recall them
information processing model
model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memory in a series of three stages
What are the five stages of the information processing model?
what are some ways our memory could fail to keep a memory?
1. sensation failure: sensory deficit
2. perception failures or errors: if we do not attend to the information, we will not recall it later
3. encoding failure: labeling can be automatic or effortful
4. storage failure: memory decay
What is the limitation of the information processing model?
limitation in that it does not explain how information is encoded in LTM without rehearsal in STM
What does the depth of processing model posit?
that instead of rehearsal, memories are encoded in the LTM by how deeply we think about them and make associations and connections
What does the reconstructive memory theory posit?
that memory should be viewed as a reconstructive
process rather than a unitary construct of associations
- more focus given to a script of events
- recalls must have a script and recall details according to instructions
What are the benefits of the reconstructive model of memory?
Well constructed scripts make it less necessary for us to attend to all events, instead focusing on novel events.
- children will recall "expected" details" but will have fewer of them, so tend to fill in more blanks with details they can remember, or that they have been told or logically derived.
context dependent retrieval
Ability to recall affected by degree to which context of experience is similar to the context in which you are recalling event
occurs when one memory is accidentally retrieved while attempting to access another memory
- retroactive and proactive
Event recalled accurately
event recalled inaccurately
MISS/ERROR OF COMMISSION
event not recalled even thought it did occur
ERROR OF OMISSION
event not recalled and did not occur
Human free-recall is what?
three accurate details for every error of commission, 75% accuracy
Loftus and Pickrell demonstrated what?
that it was possible to create false memories
Thompson, Clarke-Stewart, and Lepore found what?
that children's actual memory was altered due to coercive questioning, not just their reports of the event
Loftus and Palmer (1974):
changed one word in an MVA vignette. Found one subtly suggestive word influenced the way people remembered the event.
Dale, Loftus, and Rathburn (1978):
used subtle verbal manipulation with children. Results suggested children use conversational information to answer questions when they do not have a direct memory.
Leichtman and Ceci (1995
found the effect of suggestive questions with children was amplified when used at the same time as other problematic influences, like stereotype induction a priori or suggestive questions post hoc.
children can be as accurate as adults during interviews
Children and adults can be victims of contamination due to problematic questions
- Children may be more vulnerable when they did not understand things that happened to them or when asked detailed questions
about things that did not happen.
the process by which our brain takes information that has been first sensed and perceived, and assigns a meaningful label
The greater number of things to be encoded means that only the most salient of them are likely to make it to the child's long-term memory
children do not always have a full understanding of the events that unfold around them
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed what?
the memory occurs in three stages (sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory)
most noticeable or important
- not a common occurrence but different enough to draw our attention
a kind of assembly instruction for you memories
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