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Terms in this set (28)
Organisms are known to be highly uniform at the____ level
After hydrogen and oxygen, the next most common element in living systems is
What are the four key classes of biomolecules?
lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins
Proteins are chiefly composed of which of the following?
long unbranched amino acid polymers
Which property of lipids drives the formation of membranes?
Their hydrophobicity: exclusion of water to minimize entropy, called the hydrophobic effect
What are the important functions of carbohydrates?
Energy storage and intercellular communication
The central dogma describes:
the flow of information between DNA, RNA, and protein
The main function of the plasma membrane is to:
provide a selectively permeable barrier with the aid of transport proteins
The type of bond found between an oxygen on one water molecule and hydrogen on a different water molecule is called a
When the pH is more than two pH units above the pKa of a carboxyl group, the acid is
Water weakens the electrostatic interaction of ions due to its high
is the thermodynamic force that drives hydrophobic interactions.
What is the charge of aspartate's side chain when the pH is more than one pH unit above the pKa?
Which of the following is considered a non-covalent bond?
van der Waals interactions
A solvent with a low dielectric constant would be a ___solvent for salts.
Hydrophobic molecules are driven together by _____, not because they have an affinity for each other.
What is the H+concentration in a urine sample that has a pH of 6?
Buffers are critical in maintaining proper ___levels in biological systems
Memorize the three elements most commonly found in living cells.
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon
Know why proteins are so important in Biochemistry. Memorize that proteins are polymers of amino acids.
One of proteins' most important roles is to serve as enzymes (biological catalysts). Proteins are made when amino acids bond together by having the amine from one amino acid condense onto the carboxylic acid of another to form an amide (peptide) bond:
Know which properties of lipids drive them to form phospholipids membranes. Know the main function(s) of the plasma membrane.
Phospholipids' hydrocarbon tails are nonpolar (hydrophobic), Their phosphate (PO3-) heads, however, are very polar (hydrophilic)
separates inside and outside of cell
Memorize the basic structural features of RNA and DNA. Know that RNA's structure makes it less stable than DNA.
Nucleic acids are polymers made of individual building blocks called nucleotides. These biomolecules are used to store and transfer information.
A pairs with T in DNA, or with U in RNA. In both DNA and RNA, G pairs with C.
Be able to list and describe the intermolecular forces discussed in class, as well as how they impact macromolecules' structures.
If given info about a solution's pH and an amino acid's pKa, be able to identify the amino acid as being "protonated" or "deprotonated."
Lower pKa = more acidic proton
neutral pH (pH = 7.0) As we decrease pH, we increase acidity (protonated)
Be able to describe the hydrophobic effect and entropy's contribution to membrane assembly.
When hydrophobic molecules are immersed in water, they repel the water molecules around them. This forms a cage of water molecules around the hydrophobic molecules. Because this cage is much more ordered than the rest of the water molecules in the solution, the system has experienced a decrease in entropy
two hydrophobic molecules cluster together. This reduces the total number of structured water molecules and thereby causes less order than if the two hydrophobes stayed apart. Entropy, then, is the force that drives hydrophobic molecules together in water. This is called the hydrophobic effect.
The hydrophobic effect is responsible for the assembly of phospholipid (plasma) membranes and the way that proteins fold.
Understand that the intermolecular forces mentioned above are not the same as INTRAmolecular forces (covalent bonds, ionic bonds, metallic bonds). Be able to explain how intermolecular forces stabilize large biomolecules.
Memorize which group(s) are charged at neutral pH for each amino acid.
Hydrophobic (nonpolar) Amino Acids:
Polar Amino Acids
Positively charged amino acids
Negatively charged amino acids
Be able to describe hydrogen-bonding and what atoms and amino acid groups do it.
Hydrogen bonds(very strong partial positive charge) can form when a hydrogen is bonded to an O, N, or F(very strong partial negative charge). one of the most powerful intermolecular forces.
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