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Anatomy chapter 13
Terms in this set (57)
central nervous system
Brain is apart of what?
cerebrum, diencephalon, brain stem, cerebellum
four main parts of the brain
forms the bulk of the brain
receives and interprets sensory inputs, controls voluntary motor movements, involved with cognitive and emotional processing (thinking)
functions of Cerebrum
gyri (gyrus), sulci (sulcus)
surface of cerebrum contains what?
What are the gyri of cerebrum?
what are sulci of cerebrum?
the deepest grove is __________ __________.
each cerebral hemisphere is divided into ________ by other sulci and fissures.
central sulcus, lateral fissure, parieto-occipital sulcus
the major sulci and fissures of the brain.
divides the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe
what does the central sulcus divide?
separates the frontal and the parietal lobes from the temporal lobe.
what does the lateral sulcus separate?
separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe
what does the parietal- occiptal sulcus separate?
cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, limbic system
where is gray matter located?
millions of neuron cell bodies and no myelin
what is gray matter formed by?
millions of axons of neurons and myelin
what is white matter formed by?
deep to the cerebral cortex, surrounds nuclei
where is white matter located?
superficial layer, cerebrum
cerebral cortex is the ___________ ____________ of __________.
motor, sensory, association
three regions of cerebral cortex
control voluntary movement
what do motor areas control?
primary motor cortex, premotor area, prefrontal area
three examples of motor areas
lose control of skeletal muscle (controls contraction)
what happens if you lose control of primary motor cortex
located on pre central gyrus of the frontal lobe
where is primary motor cortex?
located anterior to the primary motor cortex on the frontal lobe
where is premotor area located?
also known as the "planning area", where motor functions are orginized before being carried out by primary motor cortex.
located anterior to the premotor area on the frontal lobe
where is the prefrontal area located?
regulation of emotional behavior, social behavior
what is the prefrontal area suppose to do?
concerned with awareness of sensation
sensory areas do what?
primary somatic sensory cortex, visual cortex
two examples of sensory areas
located on the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe.
where is the primary somatic sensory cortex located?
receives impulses from sensory receptors located on the skin. (pain, pressure, temperature)
what is significant about the primary somatic sensory cortex?
located on the occipital lobe
where is visual cortex located?
receives impulses conveying visual information
what does visual cortex do?
involved with integrative functions
association areas are involved with what?
somatic sensory association area, speech association areas which are broca's and wernicke's area
examples of association areas
located posterior to the primary somatic sensory cortex
where is somatosensory association area located
involved with the ability to recognize an object by touch
what is the somatosensory association area involved with
located on the left frontal lobe just superior to the lateral fissure
where is the Broca's area located (motor speech area)
controls muscles responsible for the production of speech
what is Broca's area responsible for?
located on the left parietal lobe and some of temporal lobe
location of Wernicke's area (sensory speech area)
involved with understanding and formulating speech
what does Wernicke's area do?
thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus
three parts of diencephalon
relay station for most sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex
about the thalamus
located inferior to the thalamus
location of hypothalamus
controls and integrates activities of ANS, controls pituitary gland, regulates feelings of rage aggression pain pleasure, regulates thirst and food intake, regulates body temperature
functions of the hypothalamus
contains the pineal gland
what does the epithalamus contain
pineal gland secretes the hormone melatonin (produced during darkness, contributes to sleep/wake cycle.
functions of epithalamus
midbrain, pons, medula oblongata
three parts of the brain stem
relays motor and sensory impulses, involved with hearing and visual reflexes
functions of midbrain
relays information to the cerebellum
function of pons
regulates heartbeat, blood pressure, breathing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, and hiccuping
function of medulla oblongata
regulates coordinated skeletal muscle movements, posture, and balance
function of cerebellum
three connective tissue layers that cover the CNS
most superficial layer, above dura mater is the epidural space
middle layer, between the dura and arachnoid is the subdural space
adheres to the surface of the brain, between pia and arachnoid mater is the subarachnoid space
the subarachnoid space is filled with ________ __________
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