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34 terms

Africa

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Great Rift Valley
stretches from Syria to Southwest Asia to Mozambique. a rift valley is a large depression in the Earth's surface formed by shifting tectonic plates
faults
fractures in the Earth's crust within which the Great Rift Valley lies
Lake Tanganyika
one of the deepest and longest freshwater lakes in the world
escarpments
edges of the plateaus, steep jagged cliffs, most are located less than 20 miles from the coast
cataracts
rivers crossing plateaus plunge down escarpments in cataracts, or waterfalls
Ruwenzori Mountains
divide Uganda and Dem Rep of Congo
Drakensberg Range
in South Africa and Lesotho. form part of the escarpment along the southern edge of Africa
Lake Victoria
largest lake in Africa, located btwn eastern and western branches of Great Rift, world's 2nd largest freshwater lake, source of White Nile River
Desertification
occurs when long periods of drought and land use destroy the vegetation
Niger River
main artery in W Africa, imp to agriculture, major means of transportation
delta
triangular section of land formed by sand and silt carried downriver (ex Niger River in Souther Nigeria)
Zambezi River
south-central Africa, ends in a delta, source-near Zambia-Angola border, interrupted by many waterfalls
Victoria Falls
border of Zambia and Zimbabwe
Congo River
meets sea through a deep estuary, useful for transportation, but rapids and waterfalls hinder some places
estuary
passage where freshwater meets saltwater
leach
dissolve and carry away, ex: heavy rains leach nutrients from the soil
savanna
tropical grassland w scattered trees, covers half of Africa. Rainfall is seasonal, tropical dry climate, has alternating wet and dry seasons
harmattan
hot dry air tht streams in from the Sahara on the northeast trade wind. dries up moisture left by heavy summer rains, tornadoes sometimes form when a harmattan and southwest winds (cool humid air) collide
Serengeti Plain
one of the world's largest savanna plains, millions of animals
Sahel
northern steppe, band of dry land extends from Senegal to Sudan. has pastures of low growing grasses, shrubs, acacia trees. rain falls mostly in June, July, Aug. rest of the year is very dry
Namib Desert
atlantic coast of Namibia, rocks and dunes and sparse desert plants
Kalahari Desert
in eastern Namibia, most of Botswana, part of South Africa. sandy, very dry, some animals and plants, hot, winter is super cold
shifting cultivation
method in which farmers move every one to three years to find better soil, engage in slash and burn farming, damages land
sedentary farming
agriculture conducted at permanent settlements, usually in areas w good soil
Zimbabwe
country w more than 13 mil ppl. white farmers, less than 1% of pop, own 70% of land
conservation farming
land managing technique tht helps protect farmland. farmers plant diff crops where they will grow best. save land for farming
South Africa
world's largest producer of gold, leader in the production of gems and industrial diamonds, one of the region's richest countries
Nigeria
region's only member of OPEC
infrastructure
resources such as trained workers, facilities, and equipment to process natural resources
e-commerce
selling and buying on the internet, around the world
Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti
many ppl died of starvation in the Horn of Africa in 1990s
carrying capacity
no of ppl an area of land can support on a sustained basis. has been exceeded greatly in South of the Sahara
Côte d'Ivoire and Madagascar
each lost more than 90% of forests mostly bc of clearing of land
ecotourism
tourism based on concern for the enviro, became a big part of business in the region