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ITP 408 - Midterm I Study Guide
Terms in this set (376)
Which innovator conducted pioneering research on radioactivity?
Which innovator is the creator of the theory of relativity?
Which innovator is the mother of American modernism?
Which innovator is the creator of the cubist movement?
Which innovator was the first computer programmer?
What is the process of translating an idea or invention into a product, service, or process that creates value or for which customers will pay?
differentiation and competitive advantage
Fill in the blanks: Innovation is a principal source of blank and blank.
True or false: innovation has no intellectual property implications.
evolutionary and revolutionary
What are the two types of innovation?
These are qualities of what kind of innovation:
- many new incremental advances
- caters existing markets
- lower risk level
These are qualities of what kind of innovation:
- something disruptive
- completely new
- creates new markets
- higher risk level
sustaining and disruptive technologies
What are two types of technological innovation?
These are qualities of what kind of technological innovation:
- incremental or radical in character
- improve the performance of established products
- performance that mainstream customers in major markets have historically valued
These are qualities of what kind of technological innovation:
- offer a very different value proposition
- underperform established products in mainstream markets
- other features valued by fringe customers
- yield cheaper, simpler, smaller, more convenient to use products
- transistors (40s)
- off-road motorcycles (60s)
- personal computers (70s)
- MP3 players (90s)
- touchscreen smartphones (00s)
Name one example of technological disruption.
basic human need and new technology
Fill in the blanks: a trend is driven by a blank and catalyzed by blank
fringe to mainstream
A trend moves from what to what?
True or false: a trend is not persistent.
- 1% inspiration
- 99% perspiration
- business savvy
- understanding of customers and markets
What 7 things does innovation involve?
design thinking and innvoation
What is a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements of business success?
Tim Brown (IDEO President & CEO)
What said this quote?
"Design thinking and innovation is a human centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer's toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements of business success"
What is a flexible problem-solving technique?
What process taps into abilities we all have, but get overlooked by more conventional problem-solving practices?
visual and phsyical
Fill in the blank: design thinking is a blank and blank method
- design thinking approach
- ethnographic research
- team brainstorming
- creating many concepts
- improving and refining
What are 8 steps of design-driven innovation?
empathize, define, ideate, prototype, test
What are the five design thinking modes?
What is the intellectual identification with the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another?
interviewing, observing, and immersing
What are three main techniques used to gain empathy?
To discover gaps in between what people do and say they do
What is the goal of empathy?
Fill in the blank: The goal of empathy is to discover gaps in between what people do and what people say they do. These gaps are blank
Which design thinking mode is known as the narrowing part of the process?
- narrow down to a specific group
- identify the need
- gather insight for team
What three things happen in the define phase of the design thinking process?
to produce one actionable problem statement
What is the goal of the define phase of the design thinking process?
Which design thinking mode is the process of determining a unique, human-centered problem from a large, unorganized set of information?
Which design thinking mode is the process of idea generation?
Which design thinking mode represents a process of going broad in terms of concepts and outcomes?
True or false: ideation provides the fuel for building prototypes and driving innovative solutions.
- be visual
- build on each other's ideas
- defer judgment
What are three rules of the ideate design thinking mode?
What is the iterative development of artifacts intended to elicit qualitative or quantitative feedback?
flaring and narrowing
Fill in the blanks: prototyping is both a blank and blank process
Fill in the blank: In prototyping, the blank process represents the proliferation of low-resolution prototypes developed as different aspects of the prototype are evaluated
Fill in the blank: In prototyping, the blank process represents the refinement of the lower-resolution models into increasingly complex and resolved models based on feedback, that leads to an even better understanding of the users needs.
building to think and quick-and-dirty prototyping
What are the two important aspects of prototyping?
What is an iterative mode in which we place our low-resolution artifacts in the appropriate context in the user's life?
True of false: we should always prototype as if we know we are right but test as if we are wrong
- show don't tell
- clear prototype needed to test
- incorporate feedback
What are the three important aspects of the test design-thinking mode?
divergent and convergent
Fill in the blanks: design thinking uses blank and blank thinking
Fill in the blank: empathy is achieved through blank
What is the observation of use in the actual context of use?
True or false: ethnographic research can only be passive or active, but not both.
initial stages of product development
Ethnographic research is strongly recommended when?
thematic and narrative analysis
What are two types of data analysis from observation?
What is organizing data according to recurrent themes found in interview or other types of qualitative data collection?
What is categorizing information gathered through interviews, finding common themes, and constructing a coherent story from data?
What is a thin, interconnected network of randomly oriented cellulose fibers?
Fill in the blank: in paper, fibers overlap each other and become chemically bonded to each other at random points of blank contact
What is the primary material for paper-making?
What is the most abundant organic material on earth?
What is a fibrous material found in most plants?
True or false: cellulose is a relatively stiff material and used as a structural molecule to support leaves, stems, and other plant parts.
- cellulose fiber
- chain of cellulose molecules
What are the four levels of cellulose's mechanical structure? List from the outside to inside.
In what process do plants manufacture glucose molecules?
carbohydrates, fats, proteins
What three classes of macronutrients can chemical processing plants create?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Carbohydrates are made up of what three elements?
True of false: all carbohydrates store energy and are made up of units of sugar.
glucose and fructose
What are the two most common monosaccharides?
Cellulose is a polymer of what kind of sugar?
glucose form 2D structures with hydrogen bonds holding them together for added stability
How does cellulose differ from starch and glycogen?
Fill in the blank: cellulose is created as blank molecules link together to form long chains within the cell walls of the plant
randomly placed, overlapping fibers
When hydrogen atoms are in the presence of water they create links to hydroxyl groups. What does this process result in?
True or false: paper materials are weak AF bro
True or false: there is not a clear distinction between paper and paperboard.
caliper (paper thickness) and density (weight per area unit)
What are the two basic rules used to define paperboard vs. paper?
- < 10 pts
- < 0.01"
- < 0.25 mm
Paper is normally defined by what thickness dimensions?
- > 10 pts
- > 0.01"
- > 0.25mm
Paperboard is normally defined by what thickness dimensions?
- < 51 lbs/1000 sq ft
- < 224 gr / sq m
Paper is normally defined by what density dimensions?
- > 51 lbs/1000 sq ft
- > 224 gr / sq m
Paperboard is normally defined by what density dimension?
- writing papers
- printing papers
- packaging papers (shipping sacks and grocery bags)
- tissue paper
Name two paper applications.
- containerboard (liners and corrugated mediums)
- folding cartons
- paper plates, cups, etc.
Name two paperboard applications.
What material is used for making corrugated board?
linerboard and corrugating medium
What two grade types are used to make up containerboard?
3000 BC Egypt
When and where (location) does the paper originate from?
What plant was used to make papyrus?
True or false: the earliest paper-like material used for packaging was considered a true paper.
True or false: Paper is etymologically derived from papyrus because the two materials are produced exactly the same way.
Fill in the blank: papyrus is the blank of natural plants
maceration or disintegration
Fill in the blanks: paper is manufactured from fibers whose properties have been changed by blank or blank
105 AC China
When and where was paper first invented?
Who is credited for the first form of papermaking?
What kind of tree was used to make pulp in 105 AC China by Cai Lun?
How long was paper an exclusively Asian product?
793 AC Baghdad
When and where was the first paper industry?
1100 AC Xativa, Spain
When and where was the first European paper-mill?
OMFG WHO WAS THE DUDE WHO INVENTED MOVABLE TYPE FOR A PRINTING PRESS???
1690 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
When and where was the first papermill in the United States?
first machine to produce roll-stock paper
What did Louis-Nicolas Robert patent?
What machine is the basis for modern papermaking?
1804 Hertfordshire, England
When and where was the first Fourdrinier machine installed?
True or false: Today, the Fourdrinier is the basic workhorse for manufacturing containerboard.
false (packaging is made from low-cost materials, as for the rest who freaking knows amiright)
True or false: packaging is made from high-cost materials and thats why no one uses it and we are all majoring in a useless industry that won't take us anywhere
trees, waste wood, recycled fiber
What are the three sources of fiber collection?
chips and sawdust from building operations
What is waste wood?
old corrugated containers (OCC) and paper trimmings
What is recycled fiber?
old corrugated containers
What does OCC stand for?
bast (0.5"), softwood (0.16"), hardwood (0.08"), straw (0.08")
List these fiber sources from longest to shortest fiber lengths: straw, softwood, bast, hardwood.
trees and OCC
Containerboard is a 50/50 ratio of what two fiber sources?
What is the primary fiber source for linerboard?
True or false: softwood trees are slow growing.
Fill in the blank: blank fibers give more opportunity to overlap and create more bonding sites.
What is the primary fiber source for corrugated medium?
Fill in the blank: blank fibers are easier to form and shape and are therefore used for corrugations and flutes.
wood logs are removed by using tumbling drums
What happens during the debarking process?
debarked logs cut into chips
What happens during the chipping process?
liberate cellulose from lignin
What happens during the pulping process?
What is a complete polymer that binds to cellulose fibers and hardens and strengthens the cell walls of plants?
sulfite, sulfate (Kraft), semi-chemical
What are the three types of chemical pulping processes?
Which pulping process involves wood chips and weak acid at high temperature and pressure to dissolve the lignin?
lighter in color, smoother, softer
Name the three qualities of sulfite pulp.
True or false: sulfite pulp cannot be bleached.
white papers and tissue papers
Name the two applications for sulfite pulp.
What pulping process involves softwood chips cooked with an alkaline process under temperature and pressure?
3 parts sodium peroxide to 1 part sodium sulfide
What is the active cooking agent in the sulfate (kraft) process?
Which pulping process is used to produce pulp for linerboard?
provides minimum cellulose degradation and results in longer, tougher fibers
What are the two reasons why the sulfate (kraft) pulping process used to produce linerboard?
True or false: sulfate pulp is much darker than sulfite pulp.
Which pulping process involves hardwood chips being processed with a combination of chemical and mechanical processes?
Which pulping process is used for manufacturing corrugated medium?
Fill in the blank: semi-chemical pulping is less blank on the wood than either the sulfite or sulfate pulping processes.
True or false: in semi-chemical pulping, the chips disintegrate like they do in sulfate (kraft) pulping.
separate chips into individual fibers
Mechanical means are used in semi-chemical pulping for what purpose?
True or false: the pulping of bales of OCCs is much more complicated than the pulping of wood.
Fill in the blank: OCCs are mixed with large volumes of blank in a pulper
True or false: pulpers are continuous in concept.
What is one of the most important measures in a paper mill?
What measures the pound of dry pulp created per pound of incoming wood or OCC?
recycled fibers, semi-chemical, sulfate, sulfite
List the 4 pulping processes from largest to smallest yields.
sulfite, sulfate, semi-chemical, recycled fibers
List the 4 pulping process from most to least severe.
What step in the papermaking process is when chemical pulps are screened to remove un-pulped clumps of fibers and washed to remove cooking liquor and chemicals?
True or false: the chemical liquor removed during stock preparation is used again for future pulping.
contaminants and non-fibrous
Fill in the blanks: recycled pulps are processed through a series of cleaning processes that remove blank and blank materials that may have entered the process via the incoming bales of OCC.
What is the mechanical process that exposes fibrils called?
Fill in the blank: refining increase the number of blank in the cellulose molecules.
allows for more potential bonding sites
How do hydroxyl sites improve the strength of a paper sheet?
Which step in the papermaking process is done to achieve strength by adding hydrogen bonding without offsetting those gained by cutting too many fibers?
Fill in the blank: the challenge of blank is balancing adding more sites without compromising fiber length.
Fill in the blank: blank is an optional process to obtain white paper.
chlorine and hypochlorite
Until the mid 1990s, what two chemicals were used to remove the residual lignin from the pulp mixture?
chlorine dioxide or alkaline extraction
Today, the most common bleaching processes use what two chemicals?
How much cellulose is left after refining and bleaching is completed?
True or false: blending of pulps from different processes is commonly done to control paper characterisitcs.
draining, pressing, and drying
Fill in the blanks: the purpose of papermaking is to create a web of fibers and to remove the water from the fiber by blank, blank, and blank.
false (paper machines are series of components)
True or false: a paper machine usually only has 1 component.
Fourdrinier and cylinder
What are two types of papermaking machines?
True or false: fourdrinier machines are used to make all kinds of paper, some kinds of paperboard, linerboard, and corrugated medium.
SBS, CUK, CCNB
What are the three types of paperboard a Fourdrinier machine can produce?
multi-ply paperboard (uncoated and CCNB)
Cylinder machines are used to exclusively make what product?
True or false: cylinder machines can be used to make linerboard.
use wire mesh cylinders (cylinder) instead of single wire belt (Fourdrinier)
How are the Fourdrinier Machine and cylinder machine different?
True or false: in cylinder machines, there is no felt shaking action, so there is less ability to modify machine direction.
What consistency does the web of wet paperboard exit the forming section of a cylinder machines?
The typical cylinder sheet from a cylinder machine is how many plies?
number of plies
What determines the properties and thicknesses of cylinder machine papers?
raw material is mainly recycled fibers
Cylinder machines are located close to metropolitan areas for what reason?
What papermaking machine involves the water-fiber mixture to be deposited on an endless continuously moving, finely woven belt using headboxes?
Which papermaking machine has a shaking motion that impacts machine direction?
virgin wood fiber
What is the main raw material used for Fourdrinier machines?
furnish compositions, layering compositions, fiber alignments
Cylinder and Fourdrinier machines have different... (hint: 3 answers) in terms of the grain of the sheet
True or false: cylinder papermaking machines have a large percentage of cross direction fibers.
Which type of papermaking machine produces more balanced sheet alignment and slightly more resistance to curling?
Which type of papermaking machine produces little resistant to curling in the cross direction?
percentage of fiber in water
What is percent consistency of papermaking?
true (can go from 95% to 1%)
True of false: the percent consistency of paper decreases as it travels down the papermaking machine.
headbox, web former, press section, drying section, winder
What are the five major portions of the Fourdriner paper machine?
delivers water-fiber mixture to web-former
What does the headbox of the Fourdrinier machine do?
narrow opening that is adjusted to allow varying amounts of water-fiber mixture to be put on web
What is the slice of the headbox?
Paper machines that manufacture medium have how many headboxes?
Paper machines that manufacture linerboard have how many headboxes?
Fill in the blanks: when producing linerboard, the first headbox lays down something called a blank blank which manufactures 70-85% of total fiber in the finished sheet.
When producing linerboard, the second headbox lays down a layer or ply on top of the base sheet that makes up what percentage of the remaining sheet?
optimum strength properties
Fill in the blank: the base sheet is processed for blank
appearance and printability
Fill in the blank: the top sheet is processed for blank and blank
1/3-1/2 way down the belt
How far away is the second headbox usually placed when producing linerboard?
fibers are trapped and water is drained
What happens on the web-former of the Fourdrinier machine?
Fill in the blank: in the press section of the Fourdrinier Machine, the top of the web is picked up by a felt at the blank
to apply pressure to fibrous belt to drive out moisture
What is the purpose of the press section of a Fourdrinier machine?
to apply heat to fibrous mixture
What is the purpose of the drying section of a Fourdrinier machine?
To apply pressure for smoother paper surfaces
What is the purpose of calendering?
to roll the paper on a reel
What is the purpose of the winding section of a Fourdrinier machine?
A reel of paperboard from a modern linerboard machine is about how big?
About how long is a reel of paperboard in length?
True or false: linerboard is often rewound around the reel to have a more tightly wound roll and uniform tension.
True or false: reels of paper can be split into multiple rolls.
True or false: paperboard manufacturing is a continuous process.
What is the consistency of paperboard when entering the machine?
What is the consistency of paperboard when exiting the machine?
3) drying and size pressing
4) precoat calendering
6) dry calendering
7) winding and slitting
What is the seven step sequence of operations for the Fourdrinier machine when producing paperboard?
Which step of paperboard manufacturing has the biggest impact on the properties of the finished product?
What is it called when fibers tend to align in the direction in which the slurry travels through the papermaking machine?
slurry or furnish
What are two words that describe the water-fiber mixture that enters the papermaking machine?
virgin vs. recycled fibers
What is furnish composition?
pressure and vacuum suction
Fill in the blanks: a combination of blank and blank is used to reduce water content form 80% to 40-60% in the pressing process of the papermaking machine.
What is the largest section of the papermaking machine?
to remove water through evaporation
What is the purpose of the drying and size pressing processes?
60% to 5%
Water content in the drying and size pressing section goes from what percentage to what percentage?
applies starch or sizing resins on paperboard surface
What does a size press do?
1) assist in bonding of fibers to sheet surface
2) aid in water holdout (for subsequent coating and printing processes)
What are the two purposes of size pressing?
Fill in the blanks: sizing aids the water holdout of the paperboard which means that it helps reduce the paper's tendency to blank blank.
True or false: sizing is conducted to help allow inks and paints remain on the surface of the paper.
What is it called when a starch solution is applied on a wet stack calender?
What is the step of paperboard making when pigments, binders, and additives are applied to enhance the appearance and surface characteristics of the paperboard?
pigments, binders, and additives
Fill in the blanks: coating is when a blend of blank, blank, and blank are applied to enhance the appearance and surface characteristics of the paperboard.
True or false: when multiple coating units are in use for the manufacturing of paperboard, each unit does not dry the coating before moving the paperboard onto the next unit.
Fill in the blank: coatings are blank based.
What is used as a vehicle to carry coatings as applied?
balde coater, rod coater, or air knife
What are the three types of devices used to apply coatings?
Each mechanism used to apply coatings yields different what?
Which type of coating mechanism fills in more valleys and less at peaks?
Which coating mechanism is used in SBS manufacturing?
Which coating mechanism is better for recycled and unbleached kraft?
Which coating mechanism results in some small impurities?
air knife coater
Which coating mechanism uses a thin jet of air?
air knife coating
Which coating mechanism is the most uniform coating?
air knife coater (blade coater is better)
Which coating mechanism can be used for recycled and kraft, but not necessarily as good to use as another method?
kaolin clay and titanium dioxide
What two pigments are used to achieve white paperboard?
styrene butadiene rubber, polyvinyl acetate, protein-based binders
What three binders can be used to bond pigments to each other and to fibers?
What is used to enhance the paperboard-making process by maintaining quality and stability?
What is a finishing step used to polish the sheet and control thickness?
What step improves the smoothness and increases the gloss of the finished sheet of paperboard?
hard nip vs. soft nip calendering
What are two types of dry calendering?
hard nip calendering
What type of calendering involves the paperboard web passing through a stack of calendering rolls made of polished steel?
soft nip calendering
What type of calendering involves the paperboard web passing between highly polished heated cylinder engaged against a resilient rubber roll?
100" to 300"
What is the width range of a paperboard reel?
What is the typical width of a commercial paperboard roll?
What unit of measure is used for paperboard thickness?
16pt to 28pt
What is the most common range of paperboard thickness?
1 to 4
Fourdrinier paperboard is usually how many plies?
SBS, CUK/CNK/SUS, CCNB, FBB, URB
List these paperboard grades from most to least expensive: CCNB, FBB, CUK/CNK/SUS, SBS, URB
SBS, CUK, CNK, SUS, CCNB are all produced using what machine?
Folding box board and uncoated recycled board are both produced using what machine?
solid bleached sulfate
What does SBS stand for?
What is the most popular paperboard grade in the United States?
What is the most expensive grade of paperboard?
SBS accounts for what percentage of the folding carton market?
coated unbleached kraft
What does CUK stand for?
CNK (clay natural kraft) or SUS (solid unbleached sulfate)
What two other acronyms are used for CUK
Which paperboard grade is considered to be superior in strength?
beverage cartons, frozen food packaging, pharmaceutical packaging
What are the three major markets for CUK?
uncoated recycled board
What does URB stand for?
True or false: URB is produced from 100% recovered paper.
What paperboard grade represents the single largest market for recovered paper in the US?
What is the least expensive paperboard grade?
shoeboxes, composite cans, set-up boxes
What are the three major market segments for URB?
coated recycled board
What does CRB stand for?
What is CRB usually coated with?
What is the largest category of paperboard grades that accounts for 40% of total folding carton market in the US?
True or false: CRB is an all bending grade, meaning it can be bent at a 180 degree angle without cracking.
clay coated news back
What does CCNB stand for?
corrugated and newspaper waste
What is CCNB made up of?
What is the most popular type of CRB?
- soap and laundry detergent packaging
- cookie and cracker packaging
- paper goods packaging
- cake mix packaging
- cereal boxes
- other dry food packaging
What is a major market segment for CRB?
- International paper
- Graphic Packaging International
Who are the four major paperboard industry players?
What is the processing technique wherein commercially thermally sterilized liquid products (typically food or pharmaceutical) are packaged into previously sterilized containers under sterile conditions to produce shelf-stable products that do not need refrigeration?
When and where was the first aseptic filling plant for milk?
What does FFS stand for?
Who became one of the leading suppliers of processing and packaging equipment for dairies?
Fill in the blank: materials and equipment are blank goods
paperboard, polyethylene, aluminum
Paperboard-based aseptic packages are typically a mix of what three materials?
gable top cartons
Refrigerated cartons are also known as what?
True or false: gable top cartons are shelf-stable therefore they do not need refrigeration.
paperboard and polyethylene
What two things are gable-top packages usually made up of?
True or false: gable-top packages include an aluminum layer.
The top seal of gable-top packages is formed using what method?
True or false: gable-top packages are designed to be tight but also be able to be peeled open.
Fill in the blank: both refrigerated and aseptic cartons are difficult to blank
hard to separate layers
Why are refrigerated and aseptic cartons difficult to recycle?
Containers made up of 12-24pt paperboard are usually shipped: formed or flat?
What are set-up boxes also known as?
What is a rigid container of laminated heavy-gage paperboard that cannot be flattened or folded for shipment to the packers?
Clay coating is usually applied to: blister packs or skin packs?
can have built-in graphics
What is the benefit of composite cans?
What is the most common practice used to manufacture composite cans?
liner, paperboard body, label, can ends
What four materials are used to produce composite cans?
True or false: paper is the most inexpensive packaging material
folding cartons, set-up boxes, tubs/trays
What are the three types of paperboard packaging?
What is the largest and most important group in paperboard packaging?
These qualities belong to what kind of paperboard packaging?
- versatile and economical
- low tooling cost
- high-speed machinery
- good space for communication
- physical protection
- facilitates handling during shipping and retailing
What is the caliper range of folding cartons?
What kind of paperboard grade is typically used for folding cartons?
This pictures represents what kind of folding carton style?
This picture represents what kind of folding carton style?
What feature is used on dust flaps to form a more positive closure than a plain friction lock?
What is a rigid container of laminated heavy-gage paperboard that cannot be flattened or folded for shipment to the packers?
paperboard blank, corner stays, paper wrap
What are the three building blocks of set-up boxes?
cut scoring or skiving
What is the first step to forming set-up boxes?
What is the second step of forming set-up boxes?
What is the third step of forming set-up boxes?
What is the fourth step of forming set-up boxes?
What is the fifth step of forming set-up boxes?
cans, tubs, cups, buckets
What kind of paperboard can be produced in a number of cross-section configurations?
single wound containers
What containers involve one or more webs that are fed at an angle and continuously wrapped around a fixed mandrel?
only available as a straight wall container
What is the limitation of spiral wound containers?
3) die cutting
5) warehousing and distribution
What are the five steps of carton converting operations?
roll or sheet
Carton is received at a converting plant in what two possible forms?
adding graphics, applying barrier coatings, waxing, lamination
What four activities can occur in printing?
What is the process that involves transformed a printed sheet into a blank carton?
windowing, gluing, combining with other substrates, couponing, coding
What five things can occur in finishing?
True or false: unprinted blanks are shipped directly from die cutting, bypassing printing and finishing.
True or false: blanks are delivered flat
True or false: blanks are delivered in an erected form
offset, flexo, gravure, digital
What are the four primary printing processes?
applying ink via printing plate and transferring ink to substrate
All four printing processes involve what two things?
sheet-fed and web-fed format
What are the two kinds of substrate feeding?
True or false: printing processes are incapable of reproducing continuous-tone images
What is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery using dots, varying either in size or in spacing, generating a gradient effect.
The behavior of light mixtures can be described by what color system?
The behavior of paint, ink, dye, or pigment mixtures can be described by the what color system?
What are the three primary colors?
What are the colors used in printing?
spot and process colors
What are the two types of colors used in printing?
line art and solid colors
Spot colors are recommended for what?
Pantone Matching System (PMS)
Fill in the blank: spot color inks are standardized using blank
1) bright and vibrant colors
2) less expensive
3) color consistency
4) ideal for metallic/fluorescent colors
What are the four advantages of PMS colors?
True or false: each color is applied to surface one at a time in a layered fashion using four different plates in printing.
expanded gamut printing
What is the method of expanding the color gamut beyond what can be replicated using conventional 4-color process printing?
What are the typical colors of expanded gamut printing?
What are the processes and procedures that occur between the procurement of original artwork and the manufacture of a printing plate?
What is the proper resolution for images?
What are means of communicating among the printer, the designer, and the product manufacturer?
Fill in the blank: the primary goal of blank is to serve as verification that the entire job is accurate, make proofreading corrections, verify color separations, to get manufacturers sign off, etc.
offset, rotogravure, flexo
The bulk of paper-based package printing can be grouped into which three high-volume printing applications?
What is the most widely used printing process for folding cartons?
imaging and non-imaging surfaces
Offset plates have two areas which are...
plate cylinder does not contact substrate
Why is offset called offset?
These qualities describe what printing process?
- traditionally sheet-fed
- very high quality printing
- economical for short and long runs
Fill in the blank: the basic idea behind offset lithography is the principles that oil repels blank
Which type of printing process has a blanket cylinder?
Fill in the number: sheet-fed offset presses are capable of continuous printing up to # sheets per hour
Only what kind of inks can be used for offset?
These advantages match what printing process?
- gives sharp images and excellent detail
- holds highlight and halftone dots well
- images can be produced near photographic quality
- plates are lowest cost and easy to produce
- economical for small and large runs
These disadvantages match what printing process?
- substrate needs to be clean
- clay coating is needed
- does not print well on web plastic sheets
- setting up press is time consuming
- slow operation
Which type of printing process has very sharp edges on the type?
True or false: offset is usually ruled out for flexible packaging solutions
Which printing process uses an engraved cylinder instead of a plate?
Which printing process has thousands of tiny, etched cells on its surface with varying sizes and depth that define the ink volume to be transferred onto the substrate?
Are sheet or web-fed applications used for gravure?
True or false: only smooth surfaces can be used for gravure
These qualities belong to which printing process?
- high-quality results
- solid colors with good coverage
- clean multi-color process work
- cost effective for long run lengths
- expensive cylinders
- high-volume packaging
- no seam lines
Which printing process has inferior type and line work quality?
Under a loupe, the halftone dots from a gravure print have what kind of look?
Which printing process is exclusively web-fed?
Which printing process has raised surfaces made of rubber or photopolymer plates?
Which printing press has an anilox roll and doctor blade?
These qualities match which printing process?
- lower quality
- longer-run items
- short make-ready
- solid color and good ink coverage
- least expensive
- wide range of substrates
- easy to change colors
- fast printing speed
- quick set ups
- adequate for short and long runs
What is a major process used to print packaging materials?
Do higher or lower line screens produce fine detail for 4-color process work?
True or false: the ink used for flexography is high-viscosity and slow drying
Flexography is responsible for what percentage of all package printing in the US?
Which printing process has a halo around the type?
Which printing process has significant variation among the halftone dots?
What is the process of printing digital-based images directly onto a variety of media substrates without a plate?
These advantages match which printing process?
- high quality printing
- variable data printing
- print on-demand
- cost effective for short runs
- fast turnarounds
flat bed and rotary die cutting
What are the two types of die-cutting techniques?
True or false: flat dies can also be used for embossing or debossing
1) good cut and score definition
3) short lead time
4) easy to change
What are the four pros of flat bed die cutting?
The con of flat bed die cutting is it is a...
Fill in the blank: rotary die cutting is exclusively employed as an integral part of a blank fed printing process
1) high speed lines
2) excellent cut and score definition
3) best suited when design changes are minimal and high production volume
What are the three pros of rotary die cutting?
higher cost and greater lead time
What are the two cons of rotary die cutting?
What is a controlled line of weakness that is created by depressing a round head steel rule into the substrate?
What is a line of weakness comprised of intermittent cuts and spaces?
determines force needed to break substrate
Why is the proportion between cuts and spaces critical in a perforation?
double cut score
What are pairs of offset and parallel cuts that are approximately 50% through from opposite sides of the substrate sheet?
cut & crease score
What is an alternative to the crease score or cut score for forming a folding type line of weakness usually when scores will not be visible?
Fill in the blank: conventional blank raises a selected area of paperboard above the outer side of the sheet
What is a negative embossing called?
What is a pattern of foil that is transferred from a carrier roll of film onto the substrate surface by means of a hot die?
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