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Arts and Humanities
History of Philosophy
apologetics chapter 2
Terms in this set (42)
organized system of beliefs and practices revolving around, or leading to, a transcendent spiritual experience
outside of the material/physical realm or the physical human experience (outside of and higher than ourselves)
the original moral sense which enables man to discern by reason the good and the evil
a desire for him, to worship and participate in something (someone) greater than ourselves
what has God inscribed in our hearts?
"you have made us for yourself O God, and our hearts are restless until they rest in you" - St. Augustine
the first four proofs: argument from change or motion, argument from causation, argument from contingency, and argument from degrees of excellence
What are the cosmological arguments?
the principle of sufficient reason
natural intuition we have that say everything needs an explanation (nothing just is without a reason why it is)
the argument from motion/change
objects are in motion
everything in motion was put into motion by someone else
there can't be an infinite regress of movers (think dominoes)
so there must be a first mover, itself unmoved, and that is God
argument from causation
some things are caused (i.e. all effects have causes)
anything that's caused has to be caused by something else (since nothing causes itself)
there can't be an infinite regress of causes
so there must have been a first causer, itself uncaused, and that is God
argument from contingency
necessary being vs. contingent being
there are contingent things
contingent things can cause other contingent things, but there can't only be contingent things
because that would mean there is an infinite regress at contingency, and a possibility that nothing might have existed
an infinite regress is impossible
so there must be at least one necessary thing, and that is God
any being that could have not existed
a being that has always existed, that always will exist, and that can't not exist
argument from degrees of excellence
properties come in degrees
in order for there to be degrees of perfection, there must be something else perfect against which everything else is measured
God is the pinnacle of perfection
argument from harmony or intelligent design
non-rational things are designed with a purpose
these things operate to attain that goal
they do not arrive at their goal by chance, but by purpose (anthropic coincidences)
since these things are not rational beings, they must be guided by someone or something knowledgeable
there does exist something which possesses intelligence by which all natural things are directed to their goal, and this we call God
so many things had to go exactly right in order for life to exist
believe in God, God exists
believe in God, God doesn't exist
do not believe in God, God doesn't exist
do not believe in God, God exists
what are the four scenario's of pascal's wager?
If God doesn't exist then you lose nothing by believing in him because nothing happens after death.
If God does exist, you have everything to lose by not believing, going to Hell and being separated from God for all eternity. By believing, you have everything to possibly gain, eternal life in Heaven with God.
explain pascal's wager
the faith and reason principle
--do not have to put reason asleep to have faith
--authentic faith is never below reason (superstition)
the Church holds to what principle?
--reason has done its work, and now I surrender to a principle I cannot control
authentic faith is a _____ on the far side of reason
--doubting Thomas: not wrong to question, but is wrong to be so aggressive that one wants total control
faith resists a _____ that is aggressive and controlling
faith goes beyond _____
faith and science
what are the two paths of knowledge?
the natural universe
science leads to knowledge of __________
faith leads to knowledge of __________
love and trust
Through reason and science, we can know about God and know that he exists. Once we know that he exists, we must have the leap to actually _____ and _____ him. This is _____.
We put _____ (trust) in other people, so if God exists it is reasonable to put trust in him.
while the evidence in science "forces" us to accept the truth, faith is a _______
assent to God's truth
faith involves an __________ even prior to our total understanding of it
ask more questions and seek to learn more
The richness of God should lead us to . . .
faith seeking understanding
theology is _______
the study of God and his revelation using human reason in order to understand it more deeply and live it more fully
ONLY the Christian culture in _______ made the breakthrough to a total and lasting scientific approach to the world
if we believe that God is the author of all truth, faith and science (should/should not) contradict
negating the faith
Christianity has confidence that we can study the natural universe on its own terms without ________
God created everything out of _____
the human race
What did God will?
humans have a _______
man is not just physical, but is also a _______
himself, with God, and with all of creation
God made man good and in communion with ___________
a free act of sinful disobedience in a real human history event at the beginning of human history
this harmony was shattered by what?
Church teaches that God created the universe out of nothing
--leave question of how up to science
big bang theory was actually first discovered and proposed by a Catholic priest
What does the Church teach about the big bang theory?
Church does not have an official stance or teaching (neutral)
--BUT, the Church does teach that if the human body evolved, the soul did not
--the soul did not evolve from natural causes, but is immortal and was placed there by God
What does the Church teach about evolution?
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