Admits women as nuns, all wear white robes. (AKA Shvetambara)
The perfect and complete knowledge that is Jain enlightment; marks the point a which one is free from damaging effects of karma and is liberated from samsara
this country is the worlds largest exporter of beef; has fought the british for control of the falkland islands; is the continents second-largest country.
has the regions highest literacy rate, standard of living, and is the only cental american country without a standing army
worlds narrowest nation; eastern third of the country is occupied by the Andes; Easter island lies off its coast
is the poorest country in the region of Central America: a true "banana republic". Large American owned banana plantations are located on fertile land.
33 ships a day pass through this country; the U.S. helped to overthrow its tyrant General Manuel Noriega in the late 1980's
this country provides the only land enntrance to the south american continent; largest cash crops are cocaine and marijuana.
this country has central americas largest lake which is home to the worlds only freshwater sharks
this is the only english speaking country in the religion; was formely known as british honduras. capital is belmopan
only country in central america without an atlantic coastline; is the smallest and most densely populated country in the region.
100 years ago this country was used as a brutal penal colony, the most notorious known as devils island; is the only foriegn possesion left ont he mainland and still depends heavenly on the france for continued support.
the name of this country means "little Venice" in spanish; was the wealthiest country in south america due to oil, but is now saddled with a huge national debt.
panama hats are really made here; produces the worlds largest crop of bananas; owns the Galapagos
this county was formely under the control of the dutch, who gave away the land that is presently new york state and new york city to the british in exchange for this exchange for this country.
the capital of this central american county has been destroyed thrree times due to earthquakes, and is also subject to eruptions from 27 volcanoes. has the largest percentage of Indians, many direct descendents of the Mayan culture.
this landlocked county is divided in half by a river that creates two dissimilar regions; the Gran chaco the west and the oriental to the east; enourmous hydroelectric dams built on the Parana river bring in vital revenues. the capital is ausncion
until the 1950's this country was model society that was known as "the switzerland of south america"; when world commodity prices declined political unrest and an urban guerrilla movement resulted; it has become the nation with the most political prisoners per capital.
this county has an asian majority that is frequentlyy in conflict with the african minority;many coastal areas are protected by a network of dikes and canals many of which were built by the dutch over 300 years ago; has attracted foreign cults the most famous of which ended in the Jonestown Massacre. Capital is Georgetown.
was once the heart of the inca civilization; ruins of machu picchu discovered in early 1990's; has the largest indian population of any country in the western hemisphere
portuguese is the official language of this country; fifth largest nation in the world; is the leading agricultural and industrial nation in latin america. known for extravagnat Carnivale.
this landlocked county, lacking a coastline or adequate road rail or water transportation, is south america's poorest nation; named after the man who helped bring an end to 300 years to spanish rule.
the worlds second- highest and longest mountain chain
these mountains form a volcanic chain throughout central america
a desert in chile that has never recorded rainfall
the worlds largest system of waterfalls
a group which is a mixture of european and indian bloodlines
an economic system in which the indigenous people of south america were expected to provide labor, food, woven cloth, and other goods
the current president of Venezuela
native indians thought cortez was this legendary toltec god whose return to earth had been prophesized
a series of geoglyphs located in Peru
ball courts had ritual signigicance independently developed the concept of 0.
coonquered by Francisco pizarro. extended south from the equator and contained half of the population of south america
conquered by hernan cortes had a wide range of hairstules that were worn by people of different professions and ranks
its empire was located in mexico and other central american countries from 1200 BCE to 400 BCE
Hinduisms oldest sacred text; four thousand years old
the doctrine that all reality is ultimately one
gods and goddesses, plants and animals, the material universe, and humans share a common essence
ancient philosophical texts that form the basis of most Hindu doctrins
the eternal Self
Have 330 million gods and goddesses
wheel of birth
most popular sacred text
The moral law of cause and effect of actions; determines the nature of one's reincarnation
ethical duty based on the divine order of reality; one of four goals of life
traditional division of society into four distinct classes- Brahmin, Kshatriya, vaishya and shudra
warriors and administrators
Farmers, Merchants, and artisans
servants and laborers
A wandering ascetic who has advanced to the fourth and highest stage of life
One who renounces physical pleasures and worldly attachments for the sake of spiritual advancements for the sake of spiritual advancement
Pleasure, especially of sensual love; one of the four goals of life
Material success and social prestige, one of the four goals of life
the path of works; One of three Hindu paths to salvation, emphasizing performing right actions according to dharma
the path of knowledge; One of three Hindu paths to salvation, emphasizing knowing the true nature of reality through learning and meditation
A system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within jnana marka, holding that all reality is essentially Brahman
Cosmic illusion brought about by divine creative power
A system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within jnana marga, asserting that reality comprises two distinct categories: matter and eternal slaves
A system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within jnana marga, seeking to free the eternal self from the bondage of personhood, culminating in the experience of samadhi; lowercase: Physical and psychological techniques for spiritual advacement
a trancelike state in which self-consciousness is lost, and the mind is absorbed into ultimate reality
the path of devotion
a incarnation, or living embodiment, of a deity, commonly of Vishnu, who is sent to earth to accomplish a divine purpose
The traditional practice of burning a widow on her husband's funeral pyre; outlawed in 1829, though it still occurs but rarely
4 goals of life
Dharma, Artha, Kama, moksha
4 stages of life
student, house holder, retired/old, ascetic
the only fertile land in this country is found north of the Hindu Kush Mountains; the country was gripped by a violent civil war in the 1980's when the soviets attempted to intervene to keep the communists in power; the Taliban came to power after this civil war.
This country gained independence in 1971 as a haven for Bengali-speaking Muslims in the region.
This country is wedged between India and Tibet and is known as the "Land of Dragons"
This is the worlds largest democracy and is unified by the Hindu religion.
The himilayas occupy about 90% of this country; It is the birthplace of Siddhartha Guatama
This country was created as a homeland for Muslims living in India; Urdu is the capital.
This country used to be known as Ceylon; It is the world's second largest producer of tea.
Has a sect of adherents called white robed monks.
The symbol for this religion is a giant hand with a circle or wheel.
The house of worship is called gurdwara
Are vegetarians and some will not even eat root vegetables.
Sacred text is called the Adi Granth.
Has spiritual conquerors of the past called tirthankaras
has a reputation as the most milititant religions in southwest
Rig Veda is its sacred text.
strive to achieve Kavala, enlightenment and perfect knowledge
Beliebve all people go through 4 stages of life: student to sannyasin
was created in the sixteenth century; the youngest of the religions in SW Asia.
Has no founder, no fixed beliefs, and no common worship.
was called the Mahatma or great souled.
had a mystical experience lasting three days in which GGod gace him a cup of nectar.
Died after he fasted to death, reveared by Jains.
Was the Guru who instated the Kalsa.
The founder of Sikhism.
Warriors and administrators.
Farmers, merchants, artisans
servants and laborers.
This is the path of works
This is the path to liberation.
This is the path of Knowledge.
the doctrine of monimsm holds that-
All reality is ultimately one.
Brahman is the-
Eternal essence of all reality and the source of the universe.
16th century India saw the founding of what Empire, which was able to finally, and successfully, unite the subconinent.
Which of the following is not one of Hinduisms four goals of life?
A wandering ascetic who has advanced to the fourth and highest stage of life is called a-
What sparked the three month Sepoy Revolution in India in 1857?
New Enfield rifles being greased with pork and beef fat.
Traditionally there are how many Hindu gods and goddeses
To what was Mahatma Gandhi reffering to as the central fact of hinduism and one of the most wonderful phenomena in human evolutin?
The wheel of rebirth or reincarnation
Liberation or release of the indicidual self, from the bondage of reincarnation
one who renounces physical pleasure for the sake of spiritual gain.
Was the avatar of Vishnu, quite the ladies man.
Hindu devotional practices
The principle of non-violence
The earthly embodiment or incarnation of a god
The moral law of cause and effect
The eternal self or soul of an individual
A wandering ascetic who has advanced to the forth and highest stage of life.
Philosophical commentaries on the Veas.
AAccording to one legend this Hindu god was transformed into a monkey by a curse.
The elephant-headed god who removes obstacles and promotes prosperity
An archway marking the entrance to a Shinto shrine or other sacred site
A Japanese medieval warrior knight
Anything the Japanese hold as sacred, including deities, certain human beings, nautural objects, and animals
A small altar in the home of a person practicing Shinto
"way of the warrior" a code of conduct for the samurai that is based on Shinto nationalism, Confucian ethics, and Zen Buddhist self-descipline
"cutting the abdomen" also called hara-kiri; ritual suicide prescribe by bushido for samurai who have committed crimes or acts of dishonor
King Mswati III
the worlds last absolute monarch; lives a life of luxury despite the fact that 2/3 of his people are living below the poverty line; has 14 wives
chastity rite; meant to prepare girls for married life and to postpone sex
indigenous people of the South African region
Dutch East Company
in 1652 it established a station in South Africa, and brought in slaves from India, Indonesia, and Madagascar
colony acquired by Great Britain in 1814
In what year was the Zulu War
dutch desendents that fought against the British in 2 "Boer Wars." They succefully resisted the first time, but were overpowered by the British the second.
means separatism in Afikaans; allowed for a legal framework for continued economic and political dominance by people of European descent in the country. Racial groups that were forced to live separately: Black, White, Colored, Asian.
blacks were assigned a "homeland" which made them technically not citizens of South Africa; required to have passports
African National Congress
began a series of civil disobedience in 1949.
69 blacks were killed after ANC split
PAC (Pan Africanist Congress)
part of ANC that broke off and became more militant
became strong leader of the ANC; sentenced to life in prison for treason
FW de Klerk
in 1990 he lifted the can on ANC and released Mandela
Nobel Peace Prize
awarded to Mandela and de Klerk.
The Kalahari Desert
this desert's temperatures vary drastically from 40 at night to 107 (in the shade) in the day
What language do the San Bushmen speak?
the Bushmens' most sacred animal to hunt
True or False: the life of Gautama is known more through legend than through varifiable fact
True or False: The Gautama remained an ascetic all of his life
True or False: One of the three jewels is the Buddha
True or False: Dharma in buddhism is exactly the same as the Hindu doctrine of dharma
True or False: Both Buddhism and Hinduism teach the doctrine of samsara
determined efforts of the human mind
The Buddha believed that salvation must be won through...
everything was in a constant state of change
What did the Buddha discover when he looked deep within himself?
no self (anatta), impermanence (anicca), suffering (dukkha)
What are the Three Marks of Existance?
What was the first Buddhist monastic community?
views and intentions, speech and conduct, livelihood and effort
Give examples of the Eightfold Path
What does the title Buddha mean?
What is the Great Vehicle whose adherence revere bodhisattvas and consider compassion the supreme virtue
What Vehicle is also known by the name of Hinayana, this is the most prevalent form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia
Which vehicle is known as the "Vehicle of the Diamond"
Theraveda, Mahayana, and Vajrayana
What are the Three Vehicles of Buddhism?
Which vehicle follows the earliest text, focuses on the teachings of Buddhism, and emphasizes the monastic life
Which vehicle is the largest division of Buddhism and the dominant form of Buddhism in China, Korea, and Japan?
Who is the current spiritual leader of Vajrayana, Buddhism; he is also believed to be in his 14th reincarnation
Four Noble Truths
to live is to suffer, suffering is caused by desire, suffering can cause cessation, and to achieve non-suffering you must follow the Noble Eightfold path. What are these called?
The Noble Eightfold Path
right views, right intentions, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfullness, and right meditation
What was the given name of the man who became known as the Buddha?
Buddhists believe that this is the state of eternal bliss and ulitimate salvation
The Middle Way
A healthy spiritual life depends on a healthy physical life
The Five Precepts
do not take a life, do not what take what is not given, don't have sex, don't lie, don't drink intoxicates
anatta, anicca, dukkha
Three Marks of Existance
old age, diseased man, corpse (learned of death), ascetic
What are the Four Passing Sights?
Buddha, dharma, sangha
What are the Three Jewels?
Who was the founder of Zen?
A zen master
Arrived at a monastery as a poor illiterate boy selling firewood, and is now remembered as one of the greatest Zen patriarchs
A verbal puzzle designed to short circuit the rational logic
What is used whenever a monk becomes tired or lacks concentration?
the Zen experiance of enlightment
Zen literally means...
True or False: Zen is beyond words and logical thinks
True or False: Zazen means "walking meditation"
True or False: a meeting between a student and a Zen master to discuss a koan is called a dokusan
A meeting between a student and a Zen master
One of Africa's three remaining kingdoms; King is absolute monarch in Africa and has 14 wives; popular vacation spot
Has no recognized central government authority; UN presence led by American troops led to the events depicted in the movie "Black Hawk Down." Pirates continue to plague ships off the Gulf of Aden.
Located off the coast of Africa, this is the world's fourth largerst island.
When this country gained independence in 1960, it became the first Communist government in Africa.
This nation is blessed with many natural resources and a pleasant climate but a 14 year war of independence, and 14 years of civil war have severely hurt the country.
Known as the "Pearl of Africa" this country should be prosperous with its fertile land and abundant minerals, but the economy is still recovering from the rule of General Idi Amin.
The government of this country is one of Africa's rare non-racial, multi party republics. Much of the country is covered by the Kalahari Desert.
The name of this country is Greek for the :Land of Sunburned faces." It is one of the world's oldest Christian nations.
The most industrial nation on the continent; the minority ruling whites have gradually transferred power to the majority blacks.
The capital of the country is Harare; stone ruins are a major tourist attraction; is landlocked
Known for its white beaches, scenery, game preserves and safaris. Earliest human history dates back two million years there.
Most of this country is an Equatorial jungle basin drained by a mighty river and hundreds of its tributaries. On a trip up the river, Joseph Conrad wrote his chilling story Heart of Darkness about the abuses he witnesses in this country under the Belgium king who was given the country as his personal kingdom.
Democratic Republic of Congo
It is the wealthiest black nation in Africa, but little trickles down to the people; the world's largest producer of manganese. Capital is Libreville
Formerly known as Northern Rhodesia; landlocked but mineral rich; capital is Lusaka
Is Africa's most densely populated country. Currently the government has the highest representation of women in their Parliament in the world. Capital is Kigali.
King Leopold II
Hired Stanley to negotiate with Congo chiefs and get them to sign documents turning over their land to his association.
The Bushmen of Kalahari highly respect this animal and it plays a major part in many of their rituals.
Great Rift Valley
The longest crack in the world's surface, separating eastern Africa from the rest of the continent.
Nelson Mandela and FW de Klerk
These men were both awarded Nobel Peace Prizes for their accomplishments
First inhabitants of Rwanda.
The corrupt and extravagant dictator of present day Democratic Republic of Congo, who fled the country in 1997
What was discovered in 1867 in South Africa (has supply of ______________)
Gold and diamonds
Rules Swaziland along with his mother
Journalist who said "Dr. Livingston I presume."
The original inhabitants of South Africa, these hunter-gatherers now live predominantly in the Kalahari Desert
Longest lake in the world (420 miles)
Missionary, a physician, and an explorer who searched for the source of the Nile and crossed the continent of Africa from coast to coast.
Traditional chastity rite in Swaziland. When the king violates his own rite, he fines himself a cow.
Edmund D. Morel
Was sent to Belgium by a Liverpool shipping line to oversee the loading and unloading of ships on the Congo run. Blew the whistle on Leopold's atrocities in the Congo.
Used to separate blacks and put them in their "homeland." There were 10 homelands total. Each black was ordered to carry a passport and their identity cards.
First black president in South Africa.
1st date in the ancient egyptian calender
Fertile soils and easily navigtable waters made _____ and 10000 sq mile delta popular for settlement
____ provided barrier against invaders
_______ built at Giza 2575 BC- 2150 BC
Classical Period of art and literature
When elaborate tombs were built in the Valley of the Kings
Became a leading power in the Western Mediterranean through ___
_____ is located in present day Askum
Inhabitants of Askum liked to build massive stone monuments over the graves of their dead leaders- one has been found that weighs ____ tons. Its the largest rock carved and set up in the world
Nubia is present day ____
Introduction of the ______ revolutionized trade; moved salt, gold, ivory easier
Allowed _____ in the kingdom, but never converted
Mansa Musa was king of Mali from ______
Went on ____ to mecca
_______ became center of Islamic scholarship
Zhen He from China
Portuguese first established trading ports (looking for salt)
Europe used the ______ for centuries to travel to the East for trade
The Europeans began searching for a _____
3 things that made the voyages possible were:
compass lateen sails astrolabe
Portuguese ships reach Senegal River, just north of Cape Verde in _______
Portuguese went to the west coast and returned with 230 slaves
The Gold Coast is present day ______
_______ rounds te Cape of Good Hope in ____
______ and Songhai Dynasties both used slaves as laborers
Spanish settlers introduced _______ cultivation into the West Indies shortly after 1500
In ______ the first boatload of African slaves headed to the New World
Second largest nation, most nomads are of the taureg society. Had 130 years of colonial rule by France but by 1962 after a bloody civil war of liberation, France was forced to leave
This country is considerded, after South Africa, to be the most industrialized nation in Africa. Fifty million people live in the Nile Valley the world's largest oasis
When oil was discovered in the Sahara, this country became one of the richest country in Africa; in 1804 Marines were sent to the "Shores of Tripoli" to destroy a pirate base.
This country is called the "Crossroads of Western and Islamic Culture." It is only eight miles from Spain
The capitol of this country is Lagos. It is the most populous nation in Africa, with the potential to become a superpower
The capitol of this country is located near the site of Carthage, an ancient Phoenician city. Was the most European country in North Africa and the first country to revolt in recent months.
This country is largest nation in Africa. It is composed of two warring societies: Arab speaking. Muslims in the north, blacks in the south. The south voted to secede from the north in January
This country is the world's top coca producer. It also has the world's largest Christian church.
Became Africa's first independant black nation in 1847 as a homeland for freed slaves, most from America.
The Slave Trade
Trafficking of slaves had existed for centuries within the continent. Mali and Songhai Dynasties both used slaves as laborers. Primary market was the Middle East, but some slaves were also sent to Europe.
Disease, political instability, and lack of transportation
Before the 19th century, why did Europeans fail to colonoize to continent?
It was seen as inhumane; morally wrong. Economic issues: cost of slaves had bagun to rise and the slave populations in their new areas were growing.
Why was slave trade in state of decline and abolished by the early 1800s?
This is the birthplace of Genghis Khan. It is the world's largest landlocked nation and the Gobi desert covers the southern third of the country.
This archipelago consists of 7,000 mountainous, earthquake prone, volcanically active islands. The US aquired this country after the Spanish American war in 1898.
Residents of this country are monstly Muslims, the ruling sultan is one of the world's richest men and thre are no taxes. Social services are free.
The name of this country was formerly "Burma." It is now controlled by a military dictatorship. The Irrawaddy River is the main highway.
This country has the world's largest population; families that have more than one child are severly penalized.
This country has gone from a poor agricultural nation to one of the "little Dragons"; wealth is celebrated in this country; it has the largest Christian minority of any other country in the Asian mainland.
This nation's largest city is Ho Chi Minh City, formerly Saigon. Communists under Ho Chi Minh led the resistance against Japanese occupation during WWII.
"The Land of the Rising Sun" has become the world's second-largest industrial economy. Every square inch of land is under cultivation.
In 1975 Communists called the Khmer Rouge killed over a million people in this country. In 1979 Vietnam drove the Khmer Rouge out of power and after Vietnam's withdrawal in 1989, the country moved toward democracy.
Occupies more than 13,000 islands that straddle the Equator. It has the world's fourth largest population, and the largest Islamic population.
This landlocked country is poor and wedged between Thailand and Vietnam. The Mekong River is the main highway.
This country invaded South Korea in 1950. Kim II Sung is revered as the great leader.
In this country formerly known as Siam, every boy is expected to spend a few months living the life of a monk. The name of this country means "free country" and they have enjoyed 700 years of independence through skillful diplomacy.
This country is a federation of independent sultanates; tensions have existed between the powerful Muslim majority and the economically strong Chinese Buddhists.
Chiang Kaishek and his followers fled here when the Communists took over China in 1949.
Capital of China
Capital of Japan
Capital of North Korea
Capital of South Korea
Capital of Mongolia
Capital of Taiwan
Bandar Seri Begawan
Capital of Brunei
Capital of Cambodia
Capital of Laos
Capital of Malaysia
Capital of Myanmar
Capital of Philippines
Capital of Thailand
Capital of Vietnam
Capital of Indonesia
True or False: It is uncertain whether Lao Tzu ever existed
True or False: Confucius is said to have sought Lao Tzu's advice
True or False: The teachings of Taoism, like those of many mystical religions, contain many paradoxes.
True or False: Males are made up of both yang and yin
True or False: Yang is considered superior to yin
A perfectly balanced individual according to Taoism
Taoism regards moral values as
In Taoism the name of the second founder is
Which of the following would not describe Tao: "the way of nature," "A personal deity or god," or "Principle order of the universe"
"A personal deity or god"
Great Rift Valley
Major geological feature that separates Eastern Africa from the rest of the continent
What are the three lakes in Eastern Africa?
Victoria, Malawi, and Tanganyika
What is the highest peak in Africa?
Longest lake in the world. Second largest lake in Africa, after Lake Victoria.
What is the source of the Nile River?
Third largest lake in Africa. 450 species of freshwater tropical fish live here.
First known inhabitants of Rwanda
What country ruled Rwanda first?
What country ruled Rwanda second (after WWI)?
What tribe ruled Rwanda first?
What tribe ruled Rwanda second?
250,000 remaining; largest group of hunter-gatherers left on earth, but they are under serious threat
A Congo Pygmy was housed temporarily at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City; then brought to the Bronx Zoo.