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154 terms

Geography Final

Quizlet Flash cards for HW 7Th. grade geography final
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Himalaya Mountains
a mountain range extending 1500 miles on the border between India and Tibet
subcontinent
a large and distinctive landmass (as India or Greenland) that is a distinct part of some continent (sometimes considered a continent)
alluvial plain
area that is built up by rich fertile soil left by river floods
archipelago
a group of many islands in a large body of water
atoll
an island consisting of a circular coral reef surrounding a lagoon
monsoon
rainy season in southern Asia when the southwestern _____ blows, bringing heavy rains
cyclone
a violent rotating windstorm
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme beingof many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
Ganges River
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
storm surge
a "dome" of water that sweeps across the coast where a hurricane lands
estuary
the large area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean
Indus Valley civilization
an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys primarily in what is now Pakistan and western India
partition
separation; division into two or more territorial units having separate political status (happened in India)
Kashmir
A region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; India and Pakistan dispute control of it.
microcredit
small loan avaliable to poor entrepreneurs, to help businesses grow and raise living standards.
entrepreneur
someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
Ramadan
an islamic fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of _______
constitutional monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but their power is limited by a constitution.
Sherpa
a member of the people originally from Tibet who live on the high southern slopes of the Himalayas in eastern Nepal
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
mandala
A religious symbol associated with meditation, usually created with geometric patterns and shapes
Sinhalese
The _______ are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. They speak Sinhala, an Indo-European language;Most of the _______ (93%) are Buddhists
Tamils
dravidian hindus who arrived in sri lanka in the fourth century, settling in north while the sinhalese moved further south
Sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
Why is the Ganges river important and what problems does it face?
1. Its thought of as the "Mother River"
2. There are rituals held there
3. It is densely populated near its banks
4. It is very polluted and unsanitary
5. People won't clean it because they believe that "sacred must be protected" and that if it needed to be cleaned, it would have been
What is the Feni River and why was a dam built on it?
1. It is a river in Bangladesh which means it is at a low elevation
2. It is near the ocean
3. It was flooding so they had to build a dam
4. They used their large population and built a secure dam at low tide
How does the Caste system affect the lives of Indians?
1. People are born into classes
2. Their path is pre-determined
3. It forces a sense of duty to do well in this life so that you can move up in your next one
How is Buddhism more like a philosophy rather than a religion?
1. It sets guidelines as opposed to a deity (higher power)
2. It states that life is suffering; to get rid of suffering is to end desire
Golan Heights
a fortified hilly area between southern Lebanon and southern Syria. also called Al-Jawlan
wadis
gullies or streams in northern Africa and the Middle East that remains dry except during rainy season
Tigris River
one of the most important rivers in Southwest Asia; it supported several ancient river valley civilizations
Euphrates River
a river of Southwest Asia, which supported several ancient civilizations and flows threw parts of Turkey, Syria, and Iraq and empties into the Persian Gulf
Jordan River
a river that serves as a natural boundary between israel and jordan, flowing form the mountains of Lebanon into the dead sea.
Dead Sea
a landlocked salt lake between Israel and Jordan that is so salty that almost nothing can live in its waters; it is 1,349 feet below sea level, making it the lowest place on the exposed crust of the earth
Rub al-Khali
large, sandy desert also named the Empty Quarter. it is located in the southeastern part of Saudi Arabia, but north of Oman
oasis
a fertile tract in a desert (where the water table approaches the surface)
salt flat
a flat expanse of salt left by the evaporation of a body of salt water
drip irrigation
a proccess by which pipes placed near plant roots drip only as much water as the plants need.
desalinization
the removal of salt (especially from sea water), this water is still too salty for farms or drinking. so it is used for sewage
fossil water
water pumped from underground aquifers
crude oil
a dark unprocessed oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons
refinery
an industrial plant for purifying a crude substance such as oil
water
the resource that south west asia needs the most is
oil
the resource that South West Asia has a lot of
The National Water Carrier project
carries water from northern Israel to the center and southern Isreal
Ancient Methods
methods that are good for providing water to small areas like farms
Modern Methods
irrigation systems and dams are examples of _____ of providing water
automobiles
the invention of ________ made petroleum highly popular
al-Ghawar
contains 1/4 of Saudi Arabia's oil
Persian Gulf War
the largest oil spill ever recorded happened during the ______________
Arabian
the _______________ peninsula is heavily influenced by the religious principles of Islam
Mecca
the holiest city in Islam is
OPEC
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
theocratic
a form of government where religious leaders control the government, relying on religious law and consultation with religious scholars
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
Western Wall
for Jews, the holiest site in Jerusalem; the only remaining portion of the Second Temple, built in 538 B.C. and destroyed in A.D. 70 by the Romans
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
Zionism
the desire for a Jewish state
Palestine Liberation Organization
a political movement uniting Palestinian Arabs in an effort to create an independent state of Palestine
Kurds
Ethnic group that lives in parts of Iraq and Turkey. They often suffer persecution in both countries, and are currently under the protection of the United Nations in Iraq.
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture
Sunni
a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad, a follower of the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Muslim community
Shi'ite
a member of the branch of Islam that regards Ali as the legitimate successor to Mohammed and rejects the first three caliphs, The branch of Islam that holds that the leader of Islam must be a descendant of Muhammad's family.
Taliban
a fundamentalist Islamic militia, a group of fundamentalist Muslims who took control of Afghanistan's government in 1996
Shrine of the Holy Sepulcher
(christianity) where Jesus died
islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims
Basin
a natural depression in the surface of the land often with a lake at the bottom of it
Nile River
the world's longest river (4180 miles)
Rift valley
a long, thin, deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
Mount Kilimanjaro
the highest peak in Africa; located in northeastern Tanzania; 19,340 feet high. (it is a volcano)
Escarpment
a long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge
Sahara
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
Aquifer
underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc
Serengeti plain
in the northern Tanzani. dry climate and hard soil prevent the growth of trees but perfect for growing grass.( a great place for watching animals)
Canopy
dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
Tibesti mountains
a volcanic group of inactive volcanoes with one potentially active volcano in the central Sahara desert in Northern Chad
Slash and Burn
a method of clearing farm land that endangers animals, read about it in previous chapters
Kalahari
a desert in southwestern Africa (Mostly Botswana)
Namib
A desert in Namibia and southwestern Angola (it means vast in nama)
Olduvai Gorge
a gorge in northeastern Tanzania where anthropologists have found some of the earliest human remains
Aksum
a kingdom along the Red Sea today known as Ethiopia and Eritrea which grew wealthy from trade
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa.
cash crop
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Masai
major ethnic group in East Africa. They live on the grasslands of rift valleys (Kenya, Tanzania). They herd livestock and farm
Pandemic
an epidemic that is geographically widespread
Goree Island
an island off the coast of Senegal that served as a major departure point for slaves during the slave trade
Stateless society
A society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
Ashanti
people who live in what is now called Ghana, in west africa, and who are known fro their artful weaving and colorful asasia, or kente cloth.
souks
marketplace in north africa
rai
a kind of Algerian music developed in the 1920s by poor urban children that is fast paced with danceable rhythms
Carthage
an ancient city state on the north African coast near modern Tunis
Islam
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
Bantu Migrations
farmers and herders who migrated south and spread language and skils which lasted thousands of years
King Leopold II
King of Belgium (r. 1865-1909). He was active in encouraging the exploration of Central Africa and became the ruler of the Congo Free State (to 1908). (p. 732) (he also created the Berlin conference to split up Africa Among the European colonies
Mobutu Sese Seko
He overthrew Lumumba, the leader of the Congo, and turned him over to his enemy. He renamed the country Zaire, and ruled for 32 years. He used a combination of force, one party rule, and gifts to supporters to run his country. (the Democratic Republic of the Congo's leader from 1967-1997. He brought the country's businesses under national control. Used the army to stay in control)
Fang sculpture
long wooden masks painted white with facial features in black. and carved boxes containing the skulls and bones of deceased ancestors, created by the Fan, who live in Gabon, southern Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea
Great Zimbabwe
a city established in what is now Zimbabwe by the Shona around 1000 A.D.; it became the capital of a thriving gold-trading area
Mutapa Empire
a state founded in the 15th century by a man named Mutota and that extended throughout all of present-day Zimbabwe except the Eastern part. It had an economy based on gold trade
apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites (the former official party of South Africa)
Nelson Mandela
South African statesman who was released from prison to become the nation's first democratically elected president in 1994 (born in 1918)
desertification
the gradual transformation of habitable land into desert
Sao Tome
controlled by portuguese, had perfect soil for growing sugar, producted much in demand in europe, used african american slaves to harvest sugar establishing the first modern colony dependant on slave labor
AIDS in south Africa
a serious (often fatal) disease of the immune system transmitted through blood products especially by sexual contact or contaminated needles which 11.6% of the population in South Africa has (5.7 million people)
gold and diamonds
South African trade consisted of:
trade in west Africa
slaves and was in the middle of the salt gold trade from north and south Africa
salt
North African trade consisted of:
trade in central Africa
Resources(lumber, gold, diamonds, etc.)
trade in east Africa
the east African's did not have much to trade but they were the middle men for south west Asia and Europe
Baltic Republics
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Red army
the name of the Soviet's army
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
Continentality
a regions distance from the moderating influence of the sea
Eurasia
the combined continent of Europe and Asia
Transcaucasia
a region that consists of the republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia
Market Economy
an economic system in which the government has little interference; products are made largely based on comsumer demand; the U.S. uses this economic style
Communism
economic and political system in which the government controls the economy by owning its farms, land, and businesses. One party system
Cold War
political tension between the U.S. and the USSR from 1945-1991; a struggle for world economic and political power; no real fighting occurred
Iron Curtain
the imaginary barrier that isolated the Russian people from the rest of the world under the communist Soviet Union
Stalin
dictator of the USSR for about 25 years including through WWII; ruled with an Iron Fist and killed/exiled any who disagreed with him
Gorbachev
last Communist leader of the USSR; started giving the people more economic and political freedom
Chernobyl
place where world's worst nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in the USSR
Dacha
Russian country vacation home
Tundra
severely cold far northern climate type of Russia; only small shrubs, mosses, and lichens are able to grow there
Permafrost
permanently frozen soil found largely in Siberia; can reach depths of up to 1,500 ft.; makes extracting natural resources difficult
Oil
what Russia is the second largest exporter of
Lake Baikal
world's deepest lake; holds 20% of all the world's freshwater
Ural Mountains
a mountain range in western Russia extending from the arctic to the Caspian Sea; forms part of the traditional boundary between Europe and Asia
Central Asia
a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
Siberia
part of Russia that lies on the continent of Asia. It has a subarctic climate
Taiga
the largest forest on earth. It primarily has coniferous trees and has many fur bearing animals such as: sable, fox, and ermine
runoff
water from rainfall that is not absorbed into the soil and runs into streams and rivers
czar
russian emperor
Russian Revolution
Ended the rule of the czars
USSR
union of soviet socialist republics or the Soviet Union for short
Command economy
An economic system in which the government controls a country's economy.
Collective farm
huge government created farms that employed large numbers of workers; all crops are distributed by the government
supra
Huge Georgian dinner party. Means "Tablecloth", and there is a lot of food.there can also be short speeches and toasts
Baryshnikov
male ballet dancer who inspired many other males to pursue ballet
vodka
unaged colorless liquor originating in Russia
Stravinsky Tchaikovsky
Famous composer
Dostoevsky Pushkin
famous writer
Kasha
russian dish: rice with butter
Chechnya
a "country" that wants independence from Russia but have been repeatedly denied it. They have turned to terrorism as a way to get freedom
Central Asia
a region consisting of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
Aral Sea
one of the biggest man-made naturals disasters in human history. The amu-dyra and syru-dayra (rivers that feed it) were diverted to water cotton and has caused the Aral sea to lose more than 80% of its water
Banya
A bathouse where Russians perform a cleaning ritual
Volga
The longest river in Europe that flows through Russia to the Caspian Sea
Gobi
Desert that separates China from Mongolia
Armenia
A largely Christian country located in Transcaucasia
Nagorno-Karabakh
Area in that is being fought over by Azerbaijan and Armenia. Located in Azerbaijan, but 3/4 of population is Armenian and all of the population is Christian.
chernozem
the rich black topsoil found in the North European Plain, especially in Russia and Ukraine
Sahel
means "shore of the desert" in arabic
Aswan High Dam
on the Nile river and was completed in 1970. It created lake Nasser. It has many negatives and positives