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105 terms

Chemistry Final Exam Review (Spring '11)

integrated tests and quizzes
STUDY
PLAY
ionic compound formed by magnesium and chloride
MgCl₂
formula for binary ionic compound formed by Fe⁺² and phosphorus
Fe₃P₂
formula for binary ionic compound formed by sodium and bromite
NaBrO₂
name of binary ionic compound Au₃(PO₄)₂
gold (II) phosphate
formula for binary molecular compound tetranitrogen pentachloride
N₄Cl₅
name of the acid: HBr (aq)
hydrobromic acid
name of the acid: H₂SO₃
Sulfurous acid
formula for nitrous acid
HNO₂ (aq)
indicates that a chemical reaction has occurred:
release of energy as light, color change, gas bubble formation
In a chemical equation, the formula of a substance in water solution is followed by the symbol:
(aq)
The Greek letter delta (Δ) above the arrow in a chemical equation means:
the reactants are heated
What can you predict by using an activity series?
whether a certain displacement reaction can occur
In stoichiometry, molar mass is used to:
relate the mass of a substance to the amount in moles of that substance
In stoichiometry, mole ratio is used to:
convert the amount in moles of one substance to an amount in moles of another substance
Molar masses are determined from:
the periodic table
The type of stoichiometry problem that involves the most steps is a:
mass-to-mass conversion
If, in the reaction A + B->C + D, the quantity of B is insufficient to react with all of A,
B is the limiting reactant.
measured amount of product obtained from a chemical reaction is the
actual yield
hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory is known as:
an ideal gas
Assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases
temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the gas particles
used to calculate the kinetic energy, KE, of a moving particle
KE= ½mv²
physical properties of gases
absence of definite volume, high compressibility, fluidity
states of matter that are fluid
gases and liquids
liquid can be described as a form of matter that:
has a definite volume
liquids are more ordered than gases because liquids have:
stronger intermolecular forces and lower mobility of the particles
Examples of intermolecular forces (IMAFs):
hydrogen bonding, London Dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions
water forms roughly spherical drops because of its:
surface tension
If energy as heat is removed, most liquids will eventually
freeze
According to the kinetic molecular theory, particles in solids
vibrate around fixed points
order of strength of intermolecular forces from least to greatest
liquid, solid, gas
Equilibrium is characterized by
opposing processes occurring at equal rates
process of changing from a solid to a gas is known as
sublimation
Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a substance equals atmospheric pressure is its
boiling point
amount of energy needed to melt one mole of a substance is its molar
enthalpy of fusion
Bond between oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule is
polar-covalent
Reason for the relatively low density of ice:
empty spaces between molecules
water's relatively high boiling point is the result of
hydrogen bonding
instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure
barometer
STP
1 atm and 0°C
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
assumed constant in Boyle's Law
n and T
Boyle's Law
P₁V₁=P₂V₂
Gay-Lussac's Law
P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂
assumed constant in Gay-Lussac's Law
n and V
Charles' Law
V₁/T₁=V₂/T₂
assumed constant in Charles' Law
n and P
Combined Gas Law:
P₁V₁/T₁=P₂V₂/T₂
T(K)=
T(°C) + 273.15
Heterogeneous mixture that has large particles that settle out is called a
suspension
Exhibits the Tyndall effect
colloid
When the size of the particles in a solution and in a colloid are compared, the particle size in the solution is
smaller.
A substance that is not soluble in a polar solvent is most likely
nonpolar
Increases the speed of the dissolving process of a solid in a liquid:
increasing temperature of the solvent, increasing surface area of the solute, shaking or stirring the solution
solution that contains the max amount of dissolved solute at a particular temperature is said to be
saturated
What happens when an acetic acid, a weak electrolyte, dissolves in water?
hydronium ions form, resulting solution will conduct electricity, most of the acid remains as nonionzed molecules in equilibrium with ions
process of forming a solid by combining two ionic solutions is called
precipitation
When a nonvolatile solute dissolves in a solvent, the vapor pressure of the solvent:
Drecreases.
When a nonvolatile solute dissolves in a solvent, its freezing point______the freezing point of a pure solvent.
is less than
When a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, its boiling point_____the boiling point of a pure solvent
is greater than
formula for the compound formed by lead (II) ions and chromate ions
PbCrO₄
formula for aluminum sulfate
Al₂(SO₄)₃
HNO₃ (aq)
nitric acid
formula for hypobromous acid
HBrO (aq)
In a chemical reaction:
the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products
Indicators of a chemical reaction occurring:
formation of precipitate, produceses gas, evolution of heat and light
A chemical equation is balanced when
the same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products
study of the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction
reaction stoichiometry
max possible amount of product obtained in a chemical reaction
theoretical yield
efficiency of a reaction
percentage yield
produces carbon dioxide and water
combustion reaction
process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container
effusion
particles in a liquid are usually
closer together and lower in energy than those in a gas
In general, most substances are
most dense in the solid state
solids and liquids both have this property
definite volume
molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if
their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in the liquid
at pressures greater than 1 atm, water will boil at
a temperature higher than 100°C
during the process of freezing, a liquid
loses kinetic energy
if force is held constant as surface area decreases, pressure
increases
developed the concept that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of their partial pressures
Dalton
separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves is called
dissociation
Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent in a process called
ionization
colligative properties depend on
the concentration of the solute particles
which elements exist as diatomic molecules?
Br I N Cl H O F
one part of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the other a slight negative charge (one is more electronegative)
Polar Molecules i.e. H₂O
molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends
Nonpolar Molecules i.e. H₂, O₂
compounds where two or more ions are held next to each other by electrical attraction (M+NM; cation+anion)
Ionic Compounds i.e. Fe₂(SO₄)₃
type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity
Hydrogen Bonding
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
Dipole-Dipole
the weakest intermolecular force; a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.
London Dispersion
Acid + Base= Salt + H₂O
Neutralization reaction
no repeating pattern, only short range order, extensively disordered
amorphous solids
highly regular arrangement of atoms, ions, molecules - periodic (repeating)
crystalline solids
the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration
diffusion
1 atm=
760 mmHg
The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases, as solid ice and liquid water; not uniform throughout
heterogenous mixtures
having a common property throughout
homogeneous mixtures
M=n/V (kg)
Molality
larger than most inorganic molecules and remain suspended indefinitely
colloids
M=n/V (L)
Molarity
M₁V₁=M₂V₂
dilution of concentrated solution
VP lowering; FP Lowering; BP Elevation, Osmotic Pressure
Colligative Properties
Solve for [H₃O⁺], [OH⁻], pH, and pOH
1) [H₃O⁺] [OH⁻] = 1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴
2) pH = -log[H₃O⁺]
3) pOH = -log[OH⁻]
4) pH + pOH = 14
7 Strong Acids
1)HCl hydrochloric acid
2) HNO₃ nitric acid
3) H₂SO₄ sulfuric acid
4) HBr hydrobromic acid
5) HI hydroiodic acid
6) HClO₃ chloric acid
7) HClO₄ perchloric acid
8 Strong Bases
1) LiOH lithium hydroxide
2) NaOH sodium hydroxide
3) KOH potassium hydroxide
4) Ca(OH)₂ calcium hydroxide
5) RbOH rubidium hydroxide
6) Sr(OH)₂ strontium hydroxide
7) CsOH cesium hydroxide
8) Ba(OH)₂ barium hydroxide