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indicates that a chemical reaction has occurred:
release of energy as light, color change, gas bubble formation
In a chemical equation, the formula of a substance in water solution is followed by the symbol:
In stoichiometry, molar mass is used to:
relate the mass of a substance to the amount in moles of that substance
In stoichiometry, mole ratio is used to:
convert the amount in moles of one substance to an amount in moles of another substance
If, in the reaction A + B->C + D, the quantity of B is insufficient to react with all of A,
B is the limiting reactant.
hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory is known as:
an ideal gas
Assumption of the kinetic-molecular theory of gases
temperature of a gas depends on the average kinetic energy of the gas particles
liquids are more ordered than gases because liquids have:
stronger intermolecular forces and lower mobility of the particles
Examples of intermolecular forces (IMAFs):
hydrogen bonding, London Dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions
Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a substance equals atmospheric pressure is its
When the size of the particles in a solution and in a colloid are compared, the particle size in the solution is
Increases the speed of the dissolving process of a solid in a liquid:
increasing temperature of the solvent, increasing surface area of the solute, shaking or stirring the solution
solution that contains the max amount of dissolved solute at a particular temperature is said to be
What happens when an acetic acid, a weak electrolyte, dissolves in water?
hydronium ions form, resulting solution will conduct electricity, most of the acid remains as nonionzed molecules in equilibrium with ions
When a nonvolatile solute dissolves in a solvent, its freezing point______the freezing point of a pure solvent.
is less than
When a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent, its boiling point_____the boiling point of a pure solvent
is greater than
Indicators of a chemical reaction occurring:
formation of precipitate, produceses gas, evolution of heat and light
A chemical equation is balanced when
the same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products
study of the mass relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction
process by which molecules of a gas randomly encounter and pass through a small opening in a container
molecules at the surface of a liquid can enter the vapor phase only if
their energy is high enough to overcome the attractive forces in the liquid
developed the concept that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of their partial pressures
one part of the molecule has a slight positive charge and the other a slight negative charge (one is more electronegative)
Polar Molecules i.e. H₂O
molecule that shares electrons equally and does not have oppositely charged ends
Nonpolar Molecules i.e. H₂, O₂
compounds where two or more ions are held next to each other by electrical attraction (M+NM; cation+anion)
Ionic Compounds i.e. Fe₂(SO₄)₃
type of attractive intermolecular force that exists between two partial electric charges of opposite polarity
attractive forces between the positive end of one polar molecule and the negative end of another polar molecule
the weakest intermolecular force; a temporary attractive force that results when the electrons in two adjacent atoms occupy positions that make the atoms form temporary dipoles.
the process by which molecules spread from areas of high concentratiion, to areas of low concentration
The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases, as solid ice and liquid water; not uniform throughout
Solve for [H₃O⁺], [OH⁻], pH, and pOH
1) [H₃O⁺] [OH⁻] = 1.0 x 10⁻¹⁴
2) pH = -log[H₃O⁺]
3) pOH = -log[OH⁻]
4) pH + pOH = 14
7 Strong Acids
1)HCl hydrochloric acid
2) HNO₃ nitric acid
3) H₂SO₄ sulfuric acid
4) HBr hydrobromic acid
5) HI hydroiodic acid
6) HClO₃ chloric acid
7) HClO₄ perchloric acid
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