Reference groups


Terms in this set (...)

Reference groups
an actual or imaginary group that influences individuals evaluations
Influences of reference groups
1. informational- enhancing knowledge
2. utilitarian- complies with perceived expectations
3. value expressive- enhancing self concept
Classifications of reference groups
Membership reference groups: ordinary figures e.g family
Aspirational reference groups: idealised figures
Degree of personal involvement: primary and secondary groups
Degree of organisation: formal and informal
Importance of reference groups
-Influences can vary according to the different types of products that consumers want e.g. low risk, low involvement usually has little to none reference group influence but high risk, high involvement usually has mid to high range of reference group influence
Reference group power bases
-social power
-referent power
-informational power
-legitimate power
-expert power
-reward power
Types of reference groups
-social class
-selected subcultures
-ones own culture
-other cultures
Membership reference group affects
- propinquity- physical nearness
-mere exposure- seeing them more often
-group cohesiveness- attracted to group/value group membership
Positive + Negative -
Can influence both positive and negative consumption patterns of consumers e.g. avoidance groups is a group of people that consumers want to avoid being like therefore they do not buy products that are associated with these types of groups e.g. nerds or druggies
refers to the change in beliefs and actions as a reaction to real or imagined group pressures
Factors influencing conformity
-cultural pressures
-fear of deviance
-group size, expertise
-susceptibility to interpersonal influence