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Biology Exam 1
Terms in this set (108)
sum of all the stamens in a flower
sac-like structure at the tip of the stamen in which pollen grains are produced
molecular biology technique in which one or
more short gene sequences taken from a well- characterized portion of the genome is used to identify a species
a group of plants that probably branched off before the separation of monocots and eudicots
whorl of sepals
single unit of the pistil
phylum that includes seed plants that form cones
dominant phylum of gymnosperms with the greatest variety of trees
collection of petals
primitive leaf that develops in the zygote;
monocots have one of these, and dicots have two of these
transfer of pollen from the anther of one
flower to the stigma of a different flower
related group of angiosperms whose
embryos possess two cotyledons
describes a species in which the male and female
reproductive organs are carried on separate specimens
food-rich tissue that nourishes a seedling as it grows (3n)
the action or process of fertilizing an egg, female animal, or plant, involving the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote.
thin stalk that links the anther to the base of the
branches specialized for reproduction found in
some seed-bearing plants, containing either specialized male or female organs or both male and female organs
thickened tissue derived from ovary wall that protects the embryo after fertilization and facilitates seed
describes an organ that grows in an unusual place, such as a roots growing from the side of a stem
Alternation of Generations
life-cycle type in which the diploid and haploid stages alternate
meristematic tissue located at the tips of stems and roots; enables a plant to extend in length
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
another name for sporangium
other term for green algae; considered the closest relative of land plants
part of green algae; live in fresh water but many are marine inhabitants; some live in damp soil, other on glaciers and snowfields; some live symbiotically with fungi to form lichens
the earliest group of seedless vascular plants; phylum lycophyta
A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
describes a life cycle in which the diploid stage is the dominant stage
other name for land plant; embryo is protected and nourished by the sporophyte
still existing; not exterminated, destroyed, or lost
no longer in existence
seedless vascular plant that produces large fronds; the most advanced group of seedless vascular plants
the base of the sporophyte
A reproductive organ that houses and protects the gametes of a plant
leaf fragment that spreads for asexual reproduction
describes a life cycle in which the haploid and diploid stages alternate; also known as an alternation of generations life cycle
describes a life cycle in which the haploid stage is the dominant stage
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
Referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte.
A small, herbaceous, nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Anthocerophyta.
a seedless vascular plant characterized by a jointed stem: equisetum
substance in vascular plants that makes cell walls rigid
fused group of carpels
structure containing the male gametophyte of
transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma
structure containing the embryo, storage tissue, and protective coat
modified leaf that encloses the bud; outermost
structure of a flower
A modified leaf that bears sporangia and hence is specialized for reproduction.
structure that contains the male reproductive
uppermost structure of the carpel where pollen is
plant structure with a tight arrangement of
sporophylls around a central stalk, as seen in cones or flowers; the male produces pollen, and the female produces eggs
long, thin structure that links the stigma to the ovary
An informal name for a member of the phylum Lycophyta, which includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
A leaf with a highly branched vascular system, characteristic of the vast majority of vascular plants.
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
An informal name for a member of the phylum Monilophyta, which includes ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives.
non vascular plant
a plant that lacks vascular tissue and true roots, stems, and leaves
any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
Living vascular tissue that carries sugar and organic substances throughout a plant
Threadlike structures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground.
diploid cell that produces spores by meiosis
modified leaves that bear sporangia
Diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
a layer of durable polymer that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
cone-like structures that contain the sporangia
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
bundle of vascular tissue made of xylem and phloem
vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
group that includes green algae and land plants
haploid cell that can produce a haploid multicellular organism or can fuse with another spore to form a diploid cell
seedless vascular plants
Plants that have vascular tissue but reproduce by spores (ferns, club mosses, and horsetails)
stalk that supports the capsule in mosses
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and minerals from the soil.
mass of tangled green filaments in mosses that forms during germination
tissue that surrounds the opening of the capsule and allows periodic release of spores
A small, herbaceous, nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Bryophyta.
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.
the most primitive group of non-vascular plants
modified leaf interior to the sepals; colorful petals
attract animal pollinators
seed plant with naked seeds (seeds exposed on modified leaves or in cones)
consumption of plants by insects and other animals
seed from a plant that was grown historically, but has not been used in modern agriculture on a large scale
grass-like plant noticeable by the absence of woody tissue
part of the plant consisting of the calyx (sepals)
and corolla (petals)
a flower with both male and female parts
(also, carpel) structure that constitutes the female reproductive organ
gymnosperm shrub with varied morphological
features that produces vessel elements in its woody tissues; the phylum includes the genera Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia
chamber that contains and protects the ovule or female megasporangium
cone containing two ovules per scale
having one long furrow; typically describes type of pollen
layer of sporophyte tissue that surrounds the megasporangium, and later, the embryo
describes a species in which the male and female reproductive organs are on the same plant
related group of angiosperms that produce embryos with one cotyledon and pollen with a single ridge
smaller spore that produces a male gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
megaspore mother cell; larger spore that germinates into a female gametophyte in a heterosporous plant
A phylum of gymnosperms represented by a single extant species, Ginkgo biloba, characterized by fanlike leaves that turn gold and are deciduous in autumn.
Alternation of Generation; Multicellular, dependent embryos; walled spores produced in sporangia; multicellular gametangia; and apical meristems
What are the 5 characteristics or derived traits that all plants have?
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