Chapter 19 Study Guide

List the major changes in American lifestyles and why cities grew between 1877 to 1900.
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1. Drawn from farms, small towns, and foreign land
2. Newcomers swelled the population of older cities and created new ones quickly
3. Urbanization of America: cities grew, attracting millions of newcomers
- Influenced politics, education, entertainment, family life.
4. African Americans moving from South to North and immigrants coming
5. Industrialization and Urbanization led to cities growth
1. Revolution in technology in the age of steel and glass produced the skyscraper, the streetcar, the suburbs and new residential patterns
2. Buildings typically made of masonry
3. Steel frames and girders ended the limitation and allowed buildings to soar higher and higher
4. Curtain walls which concealed the steel framework were no longer load bearing. Pierced by many windows that let in fresh air and light
5. New trends served as a springboard for innovative forms.
6. Ideas of modern business life were simplicity, stability, breadth, and dignity
7. Root and Sullivan = leaders of this movement.
8. Sullivan thought that form follows function.
9. Mass transit changed the urban map.
10. Streetcar city became a more fragmented and stratified society with middle class residential rings surrounding a business and working class core
11. Older brownstones, row houses, and workers' cottages turned into the slum of the city
12: Dumbell tenements
1. Cities grew = city gov. responsible became confusing
2. Increased opportunity for corruption and greed
3. Growing populations required streets and public services
4. Immigrants required more services
5. Political machines traded services for votes
6. Leaders tied together a network of ward and district captains. Each looked after his local constituents.

Stay in Power:
- B/c of skillful political organization and the fact that immigrants and others made up the bosses' constituency
- Bosses stayed in power because they paid attention to the needs of least- privileged city voters
- they offered valued services that the traditional govt. or business didn't do
1. Mugwump: Republican political activists against corruption who switched to the Democratic party
2. Mugwumps worked to end corruption in politics.
3. Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU): women who advocated total abstinence from alcohol
4. Comstock Law failed; passed earlier in 1873 to prohibit mailing or transporting of obscene, lewd, or lascivious articles.

- improved sanitation and healthcare
- new sciences (microbiology) and surgery was improved
- strict dress codes and behavior implemented
1. Cards, Dominoes, Backgammon, Chess, Checkers
2. Author Cards: required knowledge of books, authors, noted quotations
3. Stereopticon "magic lantern": slide projector, brought 3D life to art, history, nature
4. Musical forms: Ragtime, Classical, Sentimental ballads, orchestra
5. Circus, Fairs, Spectator sports: Football, Baseball, Horse races
6. Golf, Tennis, and bicycling, theaters, shows
1. Middle class wife and children became increasingly isolated from the world of work.
2. Family became more self contained
3. Older children spent more time in adolescence
4. Formal schooling became lengthier
5. Family took in fewer apprentices and boarders.
6. Fewer wives participated directly in their husbands work
7. Children occupied a separate sphere of domesticity apart from the masculine sphere of income producing work
8. Family home became a walled garden.
9. Fathers began to move their families out of the city to the suburbs.
10. Family had once functioned in part to transmit a craft or skill, arrange marriages, and offer care for dependent kin. These functions declined.
11. Family took on new emotional and ideological responsibilities.
12. Became more and more important as a means of social contrail
13. Placed new burdens on wives
1. Children no longer perceived as little adults
2. Allowed children to grow, learn, and be nurtured rather than rushed into adulthood
3. By 1900, 31 states enacted laws making school attendance compulsory
4. More schools built
5. Budgets rose
6. illiteracy declined
7. As late as 1900, the average adult had only 5 yrs of schooling
8. Educators saw school primary way to train people for life and work in an industrializing society
- focused basic values: mathematics and reading and on values: obedience and attentiveness
9. Most schools had a structured curriculum built around discipline and routine
10. Boys attended all day but girls stayed home after lunch
11: South lagging in education; wanted segregated schools
12: Kindergarten movement