The environmental influences can cause mutation in genes which causes
Cancer is caused from mutation in the
What are the sources which carry disease-causing organisms to spread?
What are proteins which inhibit viral replication in the cell mediated immunity?
What is an example vectors?
HIV affects which type of cell?
What are three ways for the public health to help fight disease
Regulating food supplies, monitoring water supplies, promoting vaccinations
Which defense responds quickly if the same virus invades the body again?
Memory T cells
Which immune response involves B cells and T cells?
Cell mediated response
What is active immunity?
Making Abiotics with B cells to specific pathogens
The person is less likely to develop the disease a second time if they have what type of cells of a certain pathogen
Memory B cells
Proteins which tag pathogens for destruction by immune cells are called?
What is specific immunity defenses?
Response to a particular pathogen
Name 5 causes of infectious diseases.
Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protest and parasites
How are infectious diseases spread?
Coughing, sneezing, contact, body fluids, contaminated water
What are vectors?
Transport the pathogens
Name two non specific defenses.
1st line - skin, 2nd line - inflammatory response, interferons, fever
What does an interferon do?
They interfere with the viral growth/replication.
What are antibodies?
Tags the antigen for destruction by immune cells
What is humoral immunity?
The action of antibodies that circulate in the blood and lymph that is activated when antibodies embed on B cells which bind to antigen on the surface of pathogen.
What do plasma cells do?
What is the difference in the first response to pathogen and second pathogen?
The second response has a higher amount.
What are the four types of T cells?
Cytotoxic T, suppressor T cell, Helper T, Memory T cells
What does cytotoxic T cells do?
hunts down infected body cells
What is vaccination?
Exposure to pathogen to develop immunity when respond
The misuse of antibiotics has led to the re-emergence of which two diseases?
Tuberculosis and Malaria
What is passive immunity?
When antibodies produce against a pathogen by other animals to produce temporary immunity.
Give an example of passive immunity.
Mom to baby or shot of antibodies.
Why have patterns of infectious disease changed?
Merging of humans and animals and misuse of medications.
What are some immune system disorders?
Allergies, HIV, AIDS, Autoimmune diseases
What are allergies?
Immune response to something (pollen, dust) foreign.
What is an autoimmune disease?
When the immune system attacks the body's own cells it produces an autoimmune disease.
What does AIDS stand for?
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is an infectious disease.
What is HIV?
Human immunodeficiency virus
Which cells do HIV attack?
What is the first step to the inflammatory response?
Respond to the wound and invading pathogens. The mast cells release histamines to increase blood flow to the area.
What is the second step to the inflammatory response?
Local blood vessels dilate. Fluid leaves the capillaries and causes swelling. Phagocytes move into the tissue.
What is the third step to the inflammatory response?
Phagocytes engulf and destroy the bacteria and damaged cells
What do helper T cells do?
Tell B cells to make antibodies