Terms in this set (32)
Why have states chosen to organize themselves collectively?
The response is found in liberalism viewpoint. They would say that within the framework of institutions, cooperation is possible.
Functionalism on IOs
Simple problems, often with technical (not political) solutions are common starting points for IOs. They promote building on and expanding the habits of cooperation nurtured by groups of technical experts. Eventually, those habits will spill over into cooperation in political and military affairs.
are available to all members of the group regardless of individual contributions. The use of collective goods involves activities and choices that are interdependent. Decisions by one state have effects for other states; that is, states can suffer unanticipated negative consequences as a result of actions by others.
The Roles of Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs)
IGOs contribute to habits of cooperation; through IGOs, states become socialized to regular interactions. Such regular interactions occur between states in the United Nations. Some establish regularized processes of information gathering, analysis, and surveillance. Some IGOs, such as the World Trade Organization, develop procedures to make rules, settle disputes, and punish those who fail to follow the rules. Other IGOs conduct operational activities that help to resolve major substantive problems. IGOs also play key roles in bargaining, serving as arenas for negotiating and developing coalitions.
IGOs often spearhead the creation and maintenance of international rules and principles. They establish expectations about their behavior of other states.
Charters if IGOs incorporate
the norms, rules, and decision-making processes of regimes. IGOs help to reduce the incentive to cheat and enhance the value of a good reputation.
For states, IGOs enlarge the possibilities for foreign policy
by making and add to the constraints under which states operate and especially implement foreign policy. States join IGOs to use them as instruments of foreign policy.
IGOs also constrain states
By setting agendas and force governments to make decisions; encourage states to develop processes to facilitate IGO participation, and create norms of behavior with which states must align their policies if they wish to benefit from their membership.
IGOs affect individuals
by providing opportunities for leadership. As individuals work with or in IGOs, they, like states, may become socialized to cooperate internationally.
In traditional peacekeeping
multilateral institutions such as the United Nations seek to contain conflicts between two states through third-party military forces. These military units are drawn from small, neutral member states, invited by the disputants, and primarily address interstate conflict.
Complex peacekeeping activities respond also to civil war and ethnonationalist conflicts in states that have not requested UN assistance. Complex peacekeeping has had successes and failures. Namibia's transition from war to cease-fire and then to independence is seen as a success; Rwanda's genocide and need for humanitarian protection is seen as a failure.
An example of peacebuilding is
UN peacekeepers have tried to maintain law and order in failing societies by aiding in civil administration, policing, and rehabilitating infrastructure.
REALIST VIEWS OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND LAW
They are skeptical about international law. International law creates some order, and states comply because it is in the state's self-interest to comply. It is in the self-interest of states to have their airspace and territory respected, and to enjoy secure procedures for international trade. They are also skeptical about international organizations, both IGOs and NGOs. Realists do not put much faith in the United Nations and point to failures of the Security Council to collectively punish aggressors. Most NGOs exist at the beck and call of states; it is states that grant them legal authority, and it is states that can take away that authority.
THE RADICAL VIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION AND LAW
Radicals see contemporary international law as the product of a specific time and historical process, emerging out of eighteenth-century economic liberalism and nineteenth-century political liberalism. Law primarily comes out of Western capitalist states and is designed to serve the interests of that constituency, and is biased against socialist states, the weak, and the unrepresented. IGOs, especially the UN and UN agencies, were designed to support the interests of the powerful. Those institutions have succeeded in sustaining the powerful elite against the powerless mass of weaker states. The lack of representativeness and the lack of accountability of NGOs are key issues. Most radicals see the world of NGOs based in the North as dominated by members of the same elite. NGOs are captive to the dominant interests of that system. Contemporary law and international organizations are not the agents of the political and economic changes that radicals desire.
THE CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION
They place critical importance on institutions and norms. Both IGOs and NGOs can be norm entrepreneurs that socialize and teach states new norms. These new norms may influence state behavior. Law plays a key role in constructivist thinking because it reflects changing norms. Norms are internalized by states themselves, they change state preferences, and shape behavior.
remain skeptical; all are reflections of state power and have no independent identity or role.
view them skeptically as well. They see them as mere reflections of political and economic hegemony.
believe that international law and organizations do not replace states as the primary actors, but they do provide alternative venues for states themselves to engage in collective action and for individuals to join with other like-minded individuals in pursuit of their goals.
The original purpose for the European Union (then called the European Community), was to a) be united against a soviety threat and b) keep Germany from wanting to go to war again through creating linkages with the rest of Europe
Coal and Steel
The European Coal and Steel Community between France and Germany was the first step to realizing the ideals of a United Europe
Treaties of Rome
6 European states committed to creating a common market, which involves: removing restrictions to internal trade; creating a common external tariff; reducing barriers on the movement of people, services, capital
Single European Act
Goal was set by this act to create a single market by 1992
EC becomes EU. Mean to create a common currency, central bank, and common defense and foreign policy.
Gives more power to the European Parliament, but emphasizes individual rights even more
Was seen as a replacement of the failed European Constitution a few years before. Makes the EU more effective (at least, it was its intent) by creating a President of the European Council and a High Representative for Foreign Affairs.
Lack of Common policy
The EU suffers in having a single European foreign policy. This was especially evident in 2003 with the Iraq conflict, with European states divided and deciding for themselves whether or not to support the US intervention in Iraq.
there are constantly political, legal, economic and cultural debates about expanding EU membership to new states.
International Law goes all the way back to treaties in Ancient Mesopatamia and were important during the Greco-Roman era. In the middle ages, the Church provided international law through canonical law. In the 16th and 17th centuries, writers like Hugo Grotius spent much time writing about international law.
Govt-org NGO "GONGO"
while it is created by a government, IT IS NOT AN IGO! IGOs have government representation in them. I used Al Jazeera as an example, since it was set up by the Qatari government, but it does not have government representation on it.
Business/Industry NGO (BINGO) "BINGO"
An example of this would be the International Organization for Standardization, which helps businesses create common standards around the world.
Donor NGOs (DINGO)
I meant to say "DONGO" (a dingo is a wild Australian dog). These organizations are created by donors to support various causes around the world.
Operational NGO (ONGO)
These organizations provide services in the countries they support.
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